საიტის დასაწყისისკენ:

 

lindon laruSi

fizikuri ekonomika
rogorc codnis safuZveli

 

originali:

http://www.schillerinstitute.org/

Lyndon LaRoushe, Jr, Physical Economy Is the Basis of Human Knowledge "Executive Intelligence Review (EIR)", Vol. 21, 9‑11 (1994)

 

avtorislindon laruSis Sesaxeb ix. Sileris institutis mier momzadebuli biografiuli xasiaTis internet-publikaciis Cveni Targmani

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

Targmna da sqolioebi daurTo

niko guniam

 

 

 

 

Sinaarsi:

v denis tukmakovi viyoT xati RvTisa anu, laruSis fizikuri ekonomika, rogorc entropiis daZleva

v mTargmnelisagan

lindon laruSi fizikuri ekonomika, rogorc codnis safuZveli

v Sesavali

v 1. fiziko-ekonomikuri droiTi mwkrivebis winaswari SedarebiTi analizi

o  1.1. miTi "iafi Sromis" Sesaxeb

  "gayvlefili aqtivebi"

v 2. smiti, rikardo da marqsi: britaneTis imperializmis nulovani zrdis ekonomistebi

o  2.1. aqsiomatikis mokle mimoxilva

  smiti fiziokratTa winaaRmdeg

  mecnierebis "obieqturoba" sinamdvileSi mis subieqturobaSia

  mecniereba, rogorc klasikuri poezia

  empirizmis tragedia

v 3. negentropiuli procesebi

o  3.1. zrdis politika

v 4.0 ekonomika rogorc unikaluri mecniereba

  magaliTi_dRevandelobis globaluri krizisi

  magaliTi_Tanamdroveobis oficialuri sicrue

o  4.1. ekonomikuri mecniereba da umaRlesi hipoTeza

damateba lindon laruSi: manqana-xelsawyoTa srulyofa, ekonomikuri mogebis gonebiTi saSualebaa

o  SeniSvnebi (avtorisa da mTargmnelisa)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lindon laruSi

foto aRebulia laruSis 1979 wels gamosuli wignidan: iarsebebs sabSoTa kavSiri 80-iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi?

(ingl. ix. internetSi, laruSis sxva nawerebTan erTd: Lyndon H. LaRouche, Will the Soviets rule during the 1980's (1979; 1980).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sinaarsisken

mTargmnelis anotacia

avtori, lindon laruSi (LaRouche), saqveynod cnobili aSS politikuri moRvawe, mecnieri da moazrovnea. mis garSemo Tavmoyrilia araerTi institucia, rogoricaa Sileris instituti (aSS; filialebiT or aTeulze met qveyanaSi), "laruSis saerTaSoriso axalgazrduli moZraoba", lindon laruSis politikuri Tanadgomis organizacia" da sxv. laruSi da misi Tanamoazreebi ikvleven mecnierebis, xelovnebis da saxelmwifos marTvis sferoebs. laruSis es naSromic exeba yovelive amas da Tanabrad sainteresoa, rogorc mecnierebisaTvis, filosofosebisaTvis, xelovanTaTvis, politikuri da sazogado moRvaweTaTvis, aseve saSualo da umaRlesi skolis moswavleebisa da pedagogebisaTvis.

lindon laruSs, rogorc aqtiur politikur moRvawes (aSS demokratiuli partiis "ruzveltis frTa", muSaobda reiganis mTavrobaSi) uamravi mteri Tu oponenti yavs, maT Soris ruseTSic (misi roli, sabWoTa sistemis daSlisken mimarTul prezident r. reiganis ZalisxmevebSi, gadamwyveti iyo). mis azrs, rogorc wesi, angariSs uweven. laruSis mowinaaRmdegeni ara marto politikosebiamaT Sorisaa mecnierebic, xelovnebis moRvawenic da uamravi sxva vinme. maTgan seriozulni protests misadmi rogorc Cans dumiliT gamoxatavenalbaT masStabebSi mkveTri sxvaobis gamo, xolo vinc xmas iRebs, maTi kritika laruSis wisqvilze asxams wyalsmagaliTad, "laruSi qristianobas zedmetad afasebs" (mxedvelobaSi qristianoba, romelic pirvel saukuneebSi arsebobda), "laruSi faSistia, radgan erovnuli ekonomikis damcvelad gamodis", "moralSi dros CamorCenilia, radgan homoseqsualobas moralur simaxinjed miiCnevs" da misT.

qarTveli mkiTxvelisaTvis laruSis fenomenSi garkveva aucilebelia. amaSi pirvel nabijad uTuod gamodgeba misi "fizikuri ekonomika", vinaidan is Tavad aris am mecnierebis Semqmneli (Tumca laruSi prioritets gotfrid laibnics uTmobs).

denis tukmakovis statia, romelic win warvumZRvareT am Targmans, Cvenis azriT SesaniSnavad axasiaTebs laruSis am naSroms.

niko gunia

ix. Sileris institutis mier momzadebuli publikacia, lindon laruSis Sesaxeb

 

 

 

 

Sinaarsisken

 

 

 

 

denis tukmakovi
viyoT xati RvTisa
anu,
laruSis fizikuri ekonomika,
rogorc entropiis daZleva

(

)

No: 27(396) , 03-07-2001

 

 

 

 

lindon laruSivinaa igi? erTi SexedviT, is gaxlavT amerikeli ekonomisti, politologi, milioneri, profesori, e.w. strategiuli TavdacviTi iniciativis naTlimama[1], aSS prezidentobis araerTjeradi kandidati, romelsac yovel winasaarCeno kompaniaSi "CaCexavden" xolme, sakuTari kardinaluri msoflmedvelobrivi gamorCeulobis gamo, sxva danarCeni kandidatebisagan. magram Tu ufro kritikulad CavuRrmavdebiT dasmul SekiTxvas? maSin igi warmogvidgeba rogorc dauRalavi mebrZoli, dRevandeli msoflios sam meoTxedis politikasa da ekonomikaSi gabatonebuli RirebulebaTa monetarul-liberaluri sistemasTan, masTan dakavSirebul "tvinTa recxvasTan" dasavlur ganaTlebis sferoSi. is gaxlavT specialisti filosofiaSi, mecnierebis istoriaSi, platonis[2], laibnicis[3], rimanis[4] da vernadskis[5] moZRvrebaTa mcodne, maTematikis, Termodinamikis da musikis ganviTarebis originalur koncepciaTa Semqneli.

magram, aris Tu ara raime ufro Rrma laruSis moZRvrebaSi? diax, aris. anzogadoebs ra Tavis Sromebs adamianuri azris ganviTarebis Sesaxeb, neandartalelebidan moyolebuli egviptemde, saberZneTamde da romamde, aRorZinebis gavliT axal dromde, bolo 6000 wlis istoriis msvlelobis garCevis safuZvelze, laruSi mTeli Tavisi sicocxle qmnis Tavisebur axal Teodiciur moZRvrebasRvTis gamamarTlebel moZRvrebas[6]. dedamiwis civilizaciis antientropiul ganviTarebaSi da SemoqmediT, pozitiur da miwier sikeTeTa siuxvis momtan adamianur SromaSi xedavs igi RvTis mudmiv Tanarsebobas samyaroSi, xedavs mis usasrulo da ganuwyvetel qmnadobas, mis nebas, romelic Seadgens mTeli samyaros ganviTarebis azrs. swored es Teologiuri kategoriebi warmoadgens lindon laruSis empiriul ekonomikur, finansur Tu politologiur SexedulebaTa RerZs. es ukanasknelni uciloblad eRobeba win kosmosSi adamianis rolis im gaukuRmarTebul, "RvTismgom" gagebas, romelic batonobs planeta dedamiwaze bolo ramodenime aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi. kacobriobis ganviTarebis politiko-ekonomikur modelSi is dainerga anglosaqsuri civilizaciis hegemoniis qveS.

axla ki vcadoT gaverkveT lindon laruSis ekonomikur da filosofiur SexedulebebSi misi fizikuri ekonomikis" magaliTze, romelic rogorc Cans misi umniSvnelovanesi naSromia, dawerili 1994 wels.

laruSi iwyebs imis mtkicebiT, rom bolo 40 wlis ganmavlobaSi msoflio meurneobaSi, "mowinave" amerikulis CaTvliT, SeimCneva vardna, romelmac SeiZina imdenad sistematiuri xasiaTi, rom gaCnda saSiSroeba axlo momavalSi is gadaizardos globalur katastrofaSi, axal "SuasaukuneTa bneleTSi".

laruSi gvTavazobs winaswar akviatebaTa gareSe Sefasdes ama Tu im saxelmwifos ekonomikis mdgomareoba, SinameurneobaTa tipiuri samomxmareblo kalaTebis gaTvliT, romelSic soflis meurneobisa da mrewvelobis mier damzadebuli saqoneli warmodgenilia raodenobis fizikur erTeulebSi. am kalaTaSi unda iyos warmodgenili fizikuri moxmarebis yvela ZiriTadi saxeoba, agreTve momsaxurebis ori ZiriTadi sfero: janmrTelobis dacva da ganaTleba.

Tu Cven marTlacda, laruSis rCevis kvalobaze, ganvixilavT samomxmareblo kalaTis cvalebadobas, gaTvlils saSualod mosaxleobis erT sulze, erT Sinameurneobaze da erT kvadratul kilometrze, bolo 40 wlis msvlelobaSi, maSin mivalT Semdg ulmobel daskvnamde: mTel am periodSi, materialuri warmoebis moculoba ganuxrelad mcirdeboda, praqtikulad yvelgan mTel msoflioSi. dasawyisSi es iyo ekonomikuri zrdis tempebis Seneleba, xolo Semdeg gadaizarda "absolutur vardnaSi".

1967-dan dawyebuli, 1990 wlisaTviswers laruSiwarmoebis doneebi erT Sinameurneobaze gadaTvliT, rogorc samrewvelo, aseve samomxmareblo bazris kalaTebis Semavsebel saganTa umetesobisaTvis, Semcirda 7_90 %-iT. amasTanave, saganTa umravlesobisaTvis, kolapsma Seadgina 40%-ze meti. es uCvenebs dacemas rogorc samrewvelo, aseve samoxmareblo bazris kalaTebSi erTad da cxadyofs aSS uunarobas uzrunvelyos aRwarmoeba (ix. nax.5, cxrilis qveteqsti.).

laruSi asaxelebs oTx principialur mizezs, romelic dResac aiZulebs ganviTarebul saxelmwifoTa mosaxleobas, pirvel rigSi amerikis SeerTebuli Statebisas, Tvali daxuWos am problemaze da irwmunos politikosTa mtkiceba "ekonomikis ayvavebis" Sesaxeb. pirvel rigSi esaa masobrivi kulturiT gamoTayvanebuli dedamiwis mosaxleobis umetesobis mimndobi xasiaTi, mosaxleobisa, romelic gaucno-biereblad iZulebulia "polit-koreqtuli" formebiT gamoxatos sakuTari sazogadoebrivi Sexedulebebi.

meore mizezi mdgomareobs oficialuri statistikis elementarul tyuilebSi, romelic, magaliTad, uars ambobs erTiani erovnuli Semosavlidan amoricxos Seusrulebel samuSaoTa Rirebuleba, samrewvelo infra-struqturis sferoSi.

ayvavebis sayovelTao rwmenis mesame mizezi miCqmalulia erovnuli Semosavlis aRricxvis gabatonebul praqtikaSi, roca mTavrobebs "mogebis" gamoTvlis dros ar surT ganasxvavon sakuTriv sasargeblo warmoeba, sikeTeTa moxmareba da nominaluri Semosavlis arasaWiro gafarToeba. 1964 wels gaCenili, mcdari magram gavlenis mqone doqtrinis Tanaxmad, aSS da sxva ganviTarebul saxelmwifoTa samuSao Zalis udidesi masa ganawilebuli aRmoCnda "momsaxurebis" sxvadasxva saxis sferoebSi, rogorebicaa magaliTad "swrafi kveba", saTamaSo biznesi da finansuri operatorebi, romelnic arafersac ar mateben sufTa produqciis fizikuri moculobis gamoSvebas, magram romelTa mogeba oficialurad mainc SeaqvT "erovnuli Semosavlis zrdis" saerTo yulabaSi.

magram ra aris is mizezi, ris gamoc planetis wamyvan ekonomistebs da politikosebs, atyueben ra adamianebs, sakuTari xalxi miyavT katastrofisaken? laruSis SexedulebiT, is mdgomareobs imaSi rom kolapsi warmoSva, mxolod da mxolod, ekonomikis nulovani zrdis im ideebma, romlebic aqsiomebis saxiT Canergilia adam smitis da marqsis[7] azrovnebaSi, xolo sul bolo dros¾sistemur analizSi, romelic ekonomikaSi SemoRebul iqna 1938 wlidan, radikal-pozitivist jon fon neimanis mier.

la ruSi gadadis imis analizze, Tu raSi mdgomareobs "nulovani zrdis" ideis principuli mcdaroba. saqme imaSia rom smitis da marqsis sistemebi, iseve rogorc fon neimanis, j. keinsis da j. st. milis sistemebicmTeli britanuli politekonomiayvela aRwers mxolod entropiul procesebs. roca fizikur process, rogoricaa ekonomikuri, marTavs ideebi, romelTa maTematikuri warmodgena entropiulia, maSin Sedegi iqneba nebismieri sistemis moSla, romelic regulirdeba aseTi xerxiT.

smitisaTvis, rikardosaTvis, marqsisaTvis, milisaTvis da fon neimanisaTvis mogeba aris raRac iseTi, romelic erTi pirovnebis mier meoris jibidanaa aRebuli¾magaliTad, vaWrobis mogeba, mevaxSeoba, an pirwavardnili spekulaciuri motyueba, dRevandeli "gadasayrel obligaciaTa" msgavsiwers laruSi. fon neimanis sityvebiT, maTTvis ekonomika, iseve rogorc dRevandeli malTusianelebisaTvis, mxolod giganturi kazinoa¾anu TamaSi monawileTi da nulovani jamiT. amaT paralelurad, frangi fiziokrtebi amtkicebdnen, magaliTad, rom sazogadoebis mTeli wminda mogeba, mosaxleobis erT sulze, wamoadgens "bunebis saCuqars" da ara adamianis mwarmoebluri Sromis nayofs. fiziokratTa saTayvano roskipi gea warmoSobda simdidris yovelgvar namats. xolo Sroma iyo ubralod saqoneli, romelic "kortnida" geas mindvrebze amosul balaxs, gadaamuSavebda ra mas guluxv saCuqrad.

smitis, malTusis, marqsis, rikardos da sxvaTa ekonomikur dogmaTa gasagebad laruSi asaxelebs lokis sazogadoebriv doqtrinas. am ukanasknelis mixedviT, adamianTa sazogadoeba sxva araferia, Tu ara calkeul erTeulTa grova, romelnic qaoturad moZraoben, Semdegi sami fuZemdebluri Zalis zegavleniT. esenia: darCes cocxali (sicocxle), eswrafodes SegrZnebiT siamovnebas (Tavisufleba) da daikmayofilos sixarbe (sakuTreba). individi ibadeba rogorc "sufTa furceli", yovelgvari Tandayolili ideebis gareSe da eqvemdebareba yoveli amqveyniur niavis Semobervas. Tanamedrove adamianies Taviseburi cxovelia, Sesabamisi instiqtebiT da sasicocxlo qmedebebiT, romelic cotaTi Tu gansxvavdeba babuinisagan.

magram, SeniSnavs laruSi, amgvar msjelobebSi aris raRac Seusabamoba. Cven avmaRldiT im cxovelTa donidan, romelnic TavianTi kulturuli potencialiT babuinebis doneze iyvnen. saubaria im droze, roca kacobrioba mTel dedamiwaze ar aRemateboda 10 mln adamians, sicocxlis mokle xangrZlivobiT. amJamad Cven gavediT iseTi globaluri potencialis doneze, rom Tanamedrove teqnologiuri SesaZleblobebiT dedamiwaze SeiZleba icxovros aranakleb 25 miliardma adamianma. gadavdgiT pirveli nabiji kosmosis ara marto gamokvlevaSi, aramed mis aTvisebaSic. mTeli Tavisi istoriis ganmavlobaSi, da rac ufro axlos iyo CvenTan miT ufro metad, kacobrioba ganuwyvetliv axorcielebda revoluciur aRmoCenebs da sulac ar "kortnida balaxs" da arc "mogebas gadaalagebda jibidan jibeSi". kacobriobis antientropiuli progresi, laruSis rwmeniT, SeiZleba SevadaroT albaT mxolod iseT evoluciur modelebs, rogoricaa Cveni biosferos ganviTareba an samyaros warmoSoba elementTa da izotopTa erTobliobidan, romelic ganwesrigebulia mendeleevis99 perioduli sistemis Sesabamisad. maSasadame martiv politekonomikur sistemebs ar SeuZlia ase ubralod moicvas da aRweros kacobriobis mTeli istoria da miTumetes ukarnaxos mas, rogor icxovros Semdgom.

pasuxad SekiTxvaze, Tu visi politekonomias SeuZlia ufro sworad aRweros kacobriobis progresi, laruSi asaxelebs laibnicis saxelslokis, smitis da marqsis mowinaaRmdeges. swored laibnicis damsaxurebaa siTburi manqanis ideis da teqnologiis cnebaTa SemuSaveba, romelic zrdis sazogadoebis zogad fizikur da ara "savaxSo" mwarmoebliTobas, mosaxleobis erT sulze. laibnicis filosofiidan gamomdinareobs, rom cxovelTa samyarodan adamians ganasxvavebs mosaxleobis koncentraciis zrda, Sromis nayofierebis matebis safuZvelze, rac mas aRamaRlebs sxva arsebaTa zemoT droiT maradisobaSi da calkeul individs axasiaTebs rogorc Semoqmedis arasrul xats.Tavad Sroma, am mSvenieri samyaros simdidreTa fizikuri aRwarmoeba, sxva araferia, Tu ara RvTis saqmeebSi monawileoba, misadmi mibaZva mis maradiul antietropiul qmedebaSi, romelsac "samyaros saaTis momarTva" [8] qvia, raTa is ar gaCerdes. ra ucxo iyo es ideebi "cxoveluri kacobriobis" TeoretikosTa gonebebisaTvis! upirveles yovlisa mxedvelobaSia jon loki, Semdeg adam smiti, romelic emsaxureboda britaneTis ost‑induri kompaniis interesebs kompaniisa, romelic eweoda opiumis kontrabandas da monebiT vaWrobas; igive iTqmis frang fiziokratebzec, romelnic ZiriTadad iyvnen feodali miwaTmflobelebi da mmevaxSeebi.

laibnicis ideebiromelTac poves gamoZaxili rimanTan, vernadskisTan, vitesTan da hamiltonTan, de golTan da adenauerTanucxo aRmoCnda Tanamedrove "tvinT-mesaWeTaTvis" ("") msoflio politekonomikuri elitidan. Sedegad ki_wers lindon laruSi nebismieri nacionaluri da TviT msoflio ekonomikac ki, Tu misi marTva efuZneba "demokratiisa da Tavisufali vaWrobis" Tanamedrove "neokonservatiul" ideebs, anu e.w. saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis "ganpirobebulobebs", aucileblad ganwirulia sameurneo da politikuri ngrevis morevSi, e.i. qaosSi, gadasavardnad.

am globaluri problemis gamovlenasa da gadawyvetiskenaa mowodebuli, laruSis azriT, misi fizikuri ekonomika rogorc mecniereba, romelsac xelewifeba aRweros da iwinaswarmetyvelos kacobriobis faqtiuri araentropiuli ganviTareba.

Tavis Semdgom msjelobebs laruSi afuZnebs or urTierTdakavSirebul kategoriebze. pirvel rigSi, esaa "mosaxleobis koncentraciis potenciali". igi warmoadgens sazogadoebis mwarmoeblur ZalTa ganviTarebis WeSmarit maCvenebels da TavisTavSi moicavs warmoebis fizikur procesebs, moxmarebebs da kacobriobis aRwarmoebas, agreTve aucilebel momsaxureobebs, rogorebicaa ganaTleba, janmrTelobis dacva da xelovneba; yvelaferi es gamosaxulia RirebulebiT maCveneblebSi, romelnic daangariSebulia mosaxleobis erT sulze, Sinameurneobaze da kvadratul kilometrze.

mosaxleobis koncentraciis potencialis zrda ganapirobebs "revoluciur-aqsiomatur aRmoCenebs", rac meore umniSvnelovanesi kategoriaa laruSis sistemaSi. es aRmoCenebi adamianis SemoqmediTi gonebis nayofia. isini ganuwyvetliv ubiZgebs kacobriobas progresisaken da warmoadgens Sromis fizikuri mwarmoeblurobis zrdis wyaros.

"entropiul swavlebaTa" dogmebze da maTze dafuZnebul daskvnebze Tvalis axela da uaris Tqma, msoflio oligarqiis Zalauflebis daZleva, romelic amuxruWebs teqnikur progress da mosaxleobis umetesobas aqcevs gasulelebul naxirad, keTilSobil mwarmoeblur SromaSi Cabma, raTa gasaqani mieces Cveni gonebis revoluciur Zalas, raTa daZleul iqnas siTbur sikvdiliT gaqroba[9]esaa is amocana, lindon laruSis azriT, romelic dgas kacobriobis winaSe. mxolod misi daZlevis Semdeg, TiToeuli CvenTagani bolomde Cawvdeba imas, rom is aris xati da saxe RvTisa.

d. tukmakovi

 

 

 

 

Sinaarsisken

 

 

 

 

mTargmnelisagan

(niko gunia)

Tanamedrove ganaTlebis sistema, maT Soris umaRlesic, samwuxarod cota yuradRebas uTmobs gadamwyveti mniSvnelobis mqone gamokvlevebs codnis Teoriis (e.i. epistemelogiis anu Semecnebis Teoriis) Sesaxeb, iseve rogorc xelovnebis, mecnierebisa da saxelmwifo marTvis Teoriis Sesaxebac[10]. msgavsi moculobis azris gamoTqmis ufleba SiZleba qondes mxolod universalur, farTe masStabis moazrovnes. swored aseTad icnoben amis mTqmels, lindon laruSs (L. H. LaRouche, Jr.)¾aSS saxelmwifo moRvawes, Tanamedrovebis universalur moazrovnes, romlis fizikuri ekonomikis Targmans vTavazobT mkiTxvels.

farTe masebisaTvis CvenSi, lindon laruSi cnobilia im uaryofiTi publikaciebiT, romelic mis Sesaxeb qveyndeboda presaSi 1980-ian wlebSi, radgan man 1979 wels iwinaswarmetyvela sabWoeTis daSla momdevno aTwleulSi[11] (ix. zem.). garda amisa, is iyo erTerTi mTavari avtori e.w. "strategiuli TavdacviTi iniciativisa", romelic 1983 wlis martSi ronald reiganis mTavrobam SesTavaza sabWoTa kavSirs (am mTavrobaSi muSaobda laruSi, sadac oTxi wlis ganmavlobaSi xelmZRvanelobda saidumlo molaparakebebs ruseTTan, ganiaraRebis sakiTxebze).

moyvanil citataSi laruSi ar gulisxmobs marto misi samSoblos¾amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis ganaTlebis, sistemas. is gulisxmobs mTel evropuli civilizaciis ganaTlebas, romlis nawili post-komunistur qveynebi da ra Tqma unda saqarTvelocaa. erTerTi mTavari azri, romelsac Tqven waikiTxavT fizikur ekonomikaSi, darwmunebuli varT bevrs SeiZleba gagikvirdeT kidec. esaa Semdegi: im mraval ubedurobaTa mizezi, romelic axasiaTebda "soc-banakis" da kapitalisturi qveynebis ekonomikebs, romelic dResac axasiaTebs Tanamedrove msoflios ekonomikebs, saerToa da ucvleli. esaa azrovnebis saerTo wesi, romelic winaaRmdegobaSia "sokrates meTodTan"¾ azrovnebis sokrates wesTan. laruSi am wess uwodebs "algebrul azrovnebas", "wrfiv azrovnebas", "sworxazovan azrovnebas", xolo misi Tanamoazre jonatan tenenbaumi¾"zarmaci gonebis wess" (laibnicis gavleniT)[12]. logikis terminologiiT azrovnebis am wesisaTvis SeiZleba gvewodebina "aqsiomaturi meTodis" pedanturi gamoyenebis wesi, roca sijiute gansakuTrebiT Tavs iCens aqsiomaTa Secvlis sakiTxSi. amis sapirispiroa sokrates wesi:

samwuxarod is sakmaod iSviaTad gamoiyeneba Cvens droSi¾wers j. tenenbaumi (igive publikaciaSi)¾igi xasiaTdeba im midgomiT, romelsac nikolas kuzaneli127 uwodebda "Docta Ignorantia"-s anu "naswavl umecrebas". es wesi varaudobs rom Cveni azrovneba, gansakuTrebiT mis sabaziso ideebi, romelnic gamoiyureba rogorc yvelaze ufro "cxadi" da TavisTavad aSkara, yovelTvis Seicavs raime arasruls, warmosaxviTs da absurdulsac ki. es wesi Tanmimdevrulad aRmoaCens da asworebs Semecnebis am arasrulyofilebas, aris WeSmaritebis dedaarsi im sazRvrebSi, ramdenadac es ukanaskneli misawvdomia CvenTvis da warmoadgens adamianis Zlierebis zrdis wyaros, bunebis ZalTa marTvaSi. fizikuri ekonomikis mTeli istoria sxva araferia, Tuarada adamianis Semecnebis xangrZlivi da TandaTanobiTi srulyofa. gonebis arasrulyofilebaTa aRmoaCenisa da Tanmimdevrulad daZlevis unari warmoadgens, adamianTa cnobierebis monawileobas universumis Semdgom ganviTarebaSi. am mimarTulebiT, SemecnebiTi ganazrebis saganTa SigniT, Cven mogvyavs Sesabamisobasi Cveni sakuTari azrovnebis procesi da universumis rogorc mTelis organizacia.

Tu sokrates wess SevadarebT, Sefaseba-gazomvis zarmaci gonebis wess, am ukanasknelis fiqsirebuli Sefaseba-gazomvis etaloniT da misi gadasaxedidan, maSin sokrates wesis yvelaze ufro gamaognebeli Tvisebad gveCveneba, rom is mudam cvlis sazom etalons. sinamdvileSi, sokrates wesi dakavSirebulia Sefaseba-gazomvis sruliad sxva koncepciasTan. ase gagebuli sokrates wesi ar SeiZleba gagebul iqnas, rogorc sworxazovnad ganviTarebadi "zarmaci gonebis wesi". bolos da bolos, neba damrTeT pirdapir vTqva, rom umravlesoba CvenTagans, gaaCnia ra Cveva gamoiyenos "zarmaci gonebis wesi", urCevnia miafuCeCos diskomfortebi, vidre gamoiyenos es meore wesi, radgan is aris ase "arasando", "uweso" da saxifaTo. amitomac gveCveneba termini "zarmaci gonebis wesi" ase misaRebad. "zarmaci gonebis wesis" damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebaa ecados ipovos iseTi sfero, iseTi komfortabeluri mcire niSa, romelSic namdvili universumi ver Segviwuxebs Cvens personalur "sakuTar" samyarosuniversums, romelic arsebobs Cvens warmosaxvaSi¼ (xazgasmebi damatebulia ¾n.g.).

ekonomikri sistemebi, romelTa marTvis politika xdeba azrovnebis pirveli, e.i. "wrfivi", "zarmaci azrovnebis wesiT", rogorc askvnis ekonomisti laruSi fizikur ekonomikaSi, aucileblad gadava entropiuli gadagvarebis fazaSi da ganicdis kolafss an es sistema Tavidan moicilebs marTvis aseT politikas. aseTi sistema iyo marqsistuli ekonomikebi da aseTia, amtkicebs laruSi, Tanamedrove kapitalisturi ekonomikac. is masac uwinaswarmetyvelebs kraxs, Tu droulad ar iqneba gacnobierebuli viTarebis arsi.

laruSi universaluri moazrovnea. misi interesebi Tanabrad exeba filosovias, mecnierebas da xelovnebas¾mTel adamianur kulturas. magram is daJinebiT uwodebs Tavis-Tavs ekonomists. ekonomikuri mecniereba misTvis araa mxolod is, rac meurneobaTa operatiuli marTvis safuZvlebs ikvlevs¾rogorc dRes bevrs hgonia. misTvis ekonomika mTavari mecnierebaa, romelsac unda daefuZnos kacobriobis samyarosadmi realur mimarTeba (erTgan is wers: Tu maTematika mecnierebis dedofalia, misi "mefe fizikuri ekoomikis mecnierebaa"). misi daskvnebis safuZvelze unda SemuSavdes Teoriuli safuZvlebi, romelic uzrunvelyofs adamianis xangrZliv fizikur arsebobas "droiT" samyaroSi. am naSromis saTauri da qvesaTauri ¾fizikuri ekonomika, rogorc kacobrivi codnis yvela dargis platonuri epistemelogiuri safuZveli, mianiSnebs am rolze[13].

laruSis, rogorc prognozis unaris mqone ekonomistis Camoyalibeba daiwyo misi reaqciiT, 1948 wels gamosul, norbert vineris wignze kibernetika¾anu marTva da kavSiri cxovelsa da manqanaSi[14]. vinerisaTvis¾romelic iyo bertran raselis87 gulmxurvale mimdevari, agreTve isaak niutonisa¾sinamdvile ori sistemisagan Sedgeba: fizikuri (mkvdari) bunebisa da sicoclisagan, sadac ukanaskneli pirvelis nawilia. laruSi emijneba amas da iziarebs didi ukraineli mecnieris vladimer ivanoviC vernadskis[15] mecnierul da filosofiuri Sexedulebebs[16]; vernadskisaTvis sinamdvile, iseve rogorc Zveli berZnebisTvis, "samfenovania":

1. aracocxali buneba,

2. cocxali buneba anu biosfero da

3. noosfero¾gonis sfero.

amave dros, momdevno "fena" ar daiyvaneba winaze da "garedan da Signidan kravs da fuTavs" mas[17], anu laruSi antireduqcionistia. laruSisaTvis, iseve rogorc vernadskisaTvis, adamianis arseboba SemTxveviToba ki araa, aramed "bunebis kanonia". misi arseboba SeuTavsebelia samyaros moazrebasTan entropia-anti-entropiis (informaciis) WrilSi¾samyaro "SemoqmediTi muxtiTaa" damuxtuli. adamiani araa mxolod "bunebis ganviTarebis" Sedegi, rogorc amas darvinizmi da marqsizmi qadagebda. darvins SeiZleba daveTanxmoT adamianis sxeulebriv warmoSobaSi, magram rogorc movlena, adamiani ara buneba, arc misi ganviTarebis Sedegi, da arc "Tvisebrivi" naxtomi, rogorc marqsizmis Sarlatanuri moZRvreba irwmuneba. pirvelive adamiani maSinaTve iyo arsebiTad is, rac axlaa¾gvimtkicebs laruSi. igi eTanxmeba qristian avtorebs adamianis, rogorc "RvTis xatis" (Imago Dei) da "yovlis-mpyrob-SemZle RmerTis" (Capax Dei) TvalsazrisSi. laruSi wers:

Cemi komentarebi evoluciis sakiTxebze, moyvanili aqvs dino de paolis Tavis statiaSi, sakuTar wvlilTan erTad[18]. misi xelnaweris kiTxvisas aRmovaCine erTi Tvalsazrisi, romelic sasargeblo iqneba, Tuki saTanadod iqneba gafarToebuli da xazgasmuli. es Seexeba platonis koncepcias im domenis (garemos) Sesaxeb, romelic Tavadaa sakuTari Tavis Semkravi, garedan Tu Signidan Semkvrel-damsazRvravi {self-bounded domain}. am cnebas centraluri adgili uWiravs TviT platonis, agreTve nikolas kuzanelis, kepleris, laibnicisa da rimanis moZRvrebebSi; igi warmoadgens fizikuri ekonomikis sferoSi Cemi aRmoCenebis birTvsac[19].

amis Semdeg mkiTxvels ar unda gaukvirdes laruSis erTi wignis saTauri¾The Science of Christian Economy (qristianuli ekonomikis mecniereba) (1991w.).

rogorc vxedavT filosofiaSi laruSi platonistia. misi azrTa dineba is mZlavri mdinarea, romelsac kvebavs moZRvrebani piTagorelebisa, platonisa, qristiani neoplatonikosebisa, netari avgustinesi, kardinal nikolas kuzanelisa, iohan keplerisa, blez paskalisa, gotfrid laibnicisa, bernhard rimanisa, georg kantorisa, kurt giodelisa, agreTve sxvebisa, romelTa sruli sia grZelia:

platonis cneba im domenis Sesaxeb, romlebic Tavad aris sakuTari SemkravisakuTari gars-sazRvari, warmoadgens Tanamedrove eqsperimentaluri fizikis safuZvels. es cneba centaraluria¼ ekonomist laruSis naSromebisaTvis, romlebic Seexeba Semecnebas, evolucias da "ara-entropiis" cnebas, fizikuri ekonomikidan[20].

laruSis filosofia aris anti-sofizmi, anti-aristotelianizmi, anti-niutonianizmi, anti-kantianizmi[21], anti-darvinizmi, anti-materializmi, anti-empiriizmi, anti-radikal-pozitivizmi[22].

ekonomikur mecnierebaSi, lindon laruSma Seitana filosofosis epistemologia, maTematikosis msjelobis sizuste, bunebismetyvelis mecnieruli obieqturoba, istorikosis erudicia da SexedulebaTa farTe moculoba. ekonomikur procesTa analizSi, is moxerxebulad da moqnilad iyenebs zogad-mecnierul meTodebs, xsnis ra mcdar, antimecnierul meTodebs maTematikaSi, fizikaSi, kerZod, Termodinamikis gabatonebul sauniversiteto saswavlo kursebSi¾

wers aw gansvenebuli rusi profesori taras muranivski, erTerT internet-publikaciaSi. am publikaciidan bevri saintereso ramis gageba SeiZleba ara marto laruSis Sesaxeb, mis Sexedulebaze ruseTSi mimdinare procesebze, aramed mis striqonebs Soris ikiTxeba bevri ram CvenSi mimdinare procesebze[23]..

laruSi yvelaferTan erTad gamoCenili saxelmwifo moRvawea. igi ekuTvnis demokratiuli partiis "ruzveltis frTas". cnobilia rom f. d. ruzvelts surda, i. stalinis da Can‑kaiSis mimxrobiT, iseTi msoflio aliansis Seqmna, romelic ar dauSvebda CerCilis gegmis ganxorcielebas¾gegmisa, romelic iTvaliswinebda britaneTis imperiis Tavisebur reanimacias[24]. samwuxarod, ruzveltis am "did strategias" ganxorcieleba ar ewera. misi avtori, meore msoflio omis damTavrebamde erTi TviT adre¾moRvawe, romelsac lomis wili miuZRvis am omSi germanuli faSizmis damarcxebaSi¾gardaicvala. amiT xel‑fexi gaexsnaT CerCilis ideur momxreebs, romlebic ocnebobdnen britaneTi imperiis reanimaciaze. lindon laruSi amtkicebs, rom virtualuri saxiT britaneTis imperia kvlavac aresebobs.

saqme imaSia, wers laruSi, rom britanelebma yofili koloniebis, evropisa da amerikis macxovrebelTa¾ da ara marto maT, azrovnebaSi Canerges iseTi aqsiomebi, romlebic dResac ganapirobebs maT mentalur da aqedan gamomdinare faqtiur monobas im oligarqiuli wreebisadmi, romlebic dganan sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso instituciaTa miRma. am instituciebis "sulia" zemoxsenebuli "virtualuri britaneTis imperia.

amaze mkiTxveli gasagebad waikiTxavs laruSis fizikur ekonomikaSi.

 

 

 

 

lindon laruSis wigni: "qritianuli ekonomikis mecniereba (da patimrobis droindeli sxva nawerebi)"

 

 

 

l. laruSis Sromebis Seswavla sWirdeba ara marto filosofoss, mecniersa da xelovans, anda saxelmwifo moRvawes da politikoss, aramed upirveles yovlisa pedagogs. laruSi Tavad aris Sileris institutis mier warmarTuli laruSis axalgazrduli moZraobis" lideri, romelic "Cafiqrebulia rogorc berketi, romelic msoflios gamoiyvans dRevandeli ekonomiuri da kulturuli depresiisagan, kerZod ganuwyveteli omebisagan". institutis erTerTi aqtiuri wevri jonatan tenenbaumi wers[25]:

erazm roterdameli 500 wlis wineT aRniSnavda: kacobriobis sibrZnis didi nawili, yovel SemTxvevaSi ganviTarebis am safexurze, warmoadgens sisuleleTa mizezebis gacnobierebas. Cven yvela vxedavT msoflio istoriis finansur, ekonomikur da socialur krizisTa udides ufskrulebs. droa, sakuTar Tavsac da sxvebsac davusvaT SekiTxvaratom varT ase ugunurni? ratom davuSviT, rom es mogvsloda Cven da Cvens Svilebs? metic, Tu gadavxedavT ukanaskneli 550 wels, SeiZleba es SekiTxva kidev ufro gavafarTooT: raoden ugunurebi vyofilvarT, roca mTeli am xnis ganmavlobaSi, aRWurvilebma renesansis epoqis RirseSaniSnavi mecnieruli da kulturuli miRwevebiT, ver mivaRwieT winsvlas im uZvelesi oligarqiuli parazitisagan ganTavisuflebis saqmeSi, romelic amJamadac, mTeli msoflios masStabiT, ipyrobs finansur sistemebs da yvelas erTad migverekeba qaosisa da omis axali apokalipsisaken?

lindon laruSi da misi TanamoRvaweni Sileris institutidan am mizezs xedaven maTematikis, mecnierebisa, filosofiisa da xelovnebis cud swavlebaSi (ra Rirs Tundac 12-e sqolioSi, moyvanili statiis saTauridan fraza¾ratom xdis "maTematikis tradiciuli swavleba" adamians gonebaClungs). isini iRwvian viTarebis gamosasworebeli bazis Sesaqmnelad da samuSaos ZiriTadi nawili, rogorc Cans, ukve Seasrules. safuZvelTa safuZvels isini xedaven klasikuri saberZneTisa da me-15 saukunis florenciis renesansis principebisken dabrunebisaken. am principTa sayrdenia platonis memkvidreobis Seswavla, romlis propagandas instituti da mTlianad laruSis moZraoba eweva.

bolos, gvsurs axlagzrdobas mivmarTo Semdegi sityvebiT: baCana bregvaZis udidesi mTargmnelobiTi Rvawlis wyalobiT, wina Taobebisagan gansxvavebiT, Tqven ukve gaqvT SesaZlebloba mSobliur enaze waikiTxoT platoni. imedi gvaqvs, Cveni mcdelobac am publikaciis saxiT, sul cota miapyrobs Tqven yuradRebas platonisaken, laruSisaken da Sileris institutis mier reklamirebuli qristeanuli faseulobebisaken ¾qristeanoba sulac araa erTerTi sxva religiur SexedulebaTa geverdiT; bedma ineba masSi iyos evropuli civilizaciis saukeTeso gamocdilebani. kacobriobis saukeTeso naazrevis aTvisebiT SeiZleba iyoT WeSmariti qristiani Semoqmed-mSenebelni Cveni samSoblosi, adamianTa modgmis Rirseuli Svili. gvinda es Sesavali davasruloT lindon laruSis mimarTviT misi axlagazrduli organizaciis wevrebisadmi[26]:

unda gaacnobieroT, rom Tqveni es moZraoba rodia mxolod axalgazrdaTa ubralo gaerTianeba. dRes iseTi viTareba Seiqmna mTel msoflioSi, rom ar arsebobs ganaTlebis arcerTi sistema, romelic am saxelis Rirsi iyos. sinamdvileSi, axalgazrduli moZraoba im saxiT, rogoradac mas me gisaxavT, romlis gegmebSi, magaliTad, Sedis algebris fundamentur TeoremaSi garkveva[27], imavdroulad universitetic aris. erTad imuSaveT im sakiTxebze, romelTac dagisvamT cxovreba da Tan gaxsovdeT: "Tqven gvWirdebaT im ideaTa codna, romlebic aucilebelia samyaroSi efeqturi cxovrebisaTvis".

niko gunia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sinaarsisken

 

 

 

 

lindon laruSi, 2006 w

 

 

 

 

lindon laruSi
fizikuri ekonomika, rogorc codnis safuZveli

 

 

 

 

Sinaarsisken

Sesavali[28]

varSavis xelsekrulebis sistemis daSlis Semdeg, romelic ZiriTadad gamowveuli iyo ekonomikuri mizezebiT, istebliSmentis zogierTi moazrovne warmomadgeneli ukve ar iyo dabrmavebuli, londonis da uol-stritis finansur-monetaruli sistemis masobrivi propagandiT da TiTqos daiwyes Ria da jansaRi Sefaseba imisa, Tu ra mouvida sabWoTa sistemas, 1980-iani wlebis bolos. ara marto varSavis xelSekrulebis sistemam ganicada dezintegracia, aramed aseTive safrTxe daemuqra, anglo-saqsuri finansuri, SesaZloa politikuri, sistemis post-ialtur formasac. ekonomikur politikaSi TandaTanobiTi cvlilebaTa jaWvma, romelic msoflio finansur sistemaSi, mTlianobaSi, SeiWra sadRac 30 wlis wineT, saTave daudo uwesivrobas mTel sistemaSi ¾realuri ekonomikis spiralisebur kolapss[29], gamowveuls isedac uzarmazari, magram kvlavac swrafad zrdadi, sapnis buStis gaumaZRari finansuri spekulaciebiT. es procesi gavs avTvisebiani simsivnis parazitul zrdas, romelic nTqavs Tavis msxverpls.

WeSmaritad inteligenturad moazrovne adamianebi msoflios nebismier kuTxeSi, dRes aRmoCndnen ekonomikuri politikis gamorCeulad mniSvnelovani problemis pirispir: Tu arsebuli finansuri sistema ganwirulia, maSin SeiZleba Tu ara mis sanacvlod Seiqmnas axali da janmrTeli, Tanac iseT vadebSi, rom aRikveTos qveynebis politikuri dezintegracia, risi safrTxec arsebobs finansuri zvavis Camowolis SemTxvevaSi, ris dawyebasac TiTqmis araferi aklia da romelic walekavs msoflios?

amgvarad, Cven SevejaxeT ar romelime morig ciklur finansur kriziss safinanso bazrebze, roca bums mosdevs depresia. esaa sistemis saerTo krizisi: Cven an movSliT krizisis warmomqnel ekonomikur politikas, an krizisi daangrevs TviT ekonomikas. am pirobebSi, nebismieri mcdeloba¾Seicvalos am sakiTxis ganxilva imis winaswarmetyvelebiT, Tu romel dRes, Tundac Tves, SesaZlebelia saboloo kolapsi, gamoiyureba iaffasian, macdur fandad. vidre moTminebiT vekidebiT "sruli liberalizaciis" monetarul formebs da masTan dakavSirebul fritrederul politikas, SeuZlebeli iqneba win aRvudgeT mTeli qveynebis finansur da ekonomikur kolapss. rodis moxdeba es? pasuxi martivia: Tu Cven ar amovZirkvavT "Tavisufal vaWrobas" da masTan dakavSirebul politikas, romlebmac warmoSves es krizisi, sistemis sayovelTao kolapsi moxdeba Zalian male. im politikis nebismieri gagrZelebis SemTxvevaSi, romelsac amJamad icavs uol striti da e.w. konservatorebi, e.i. bolo 25 wlis anglo-amerikeli politikosebi, araviTari eWvi ar arsebobs imaSi, rom male planetas moicavs yvelaze uaresi finansur da ekonomikuri katastrofa, romelic ucnobia istoriisaTvis mas Semdeg, roca msgavsma politikam venecieli bankirebisa, me-14 saukuneSi, evropaSi gamoiwvia kolapsi.

nebismier SemTxvevaSi, Tundac politikis Secvlisas bolo momentSimsoflios realuri ekonomikis gadasarCenad, amJamindeli msoflio-finansuri sistema ganwirulia. ekonomikis yovelgvari gamokeTeba damokidebuli iqneba farTomasStabian saxelmwifo sakredito meqanizmis Seqmnasa da amuSavebaze. isini imoqmedebs Zveli sistemisgan damoukideblad, romelic SenarCunebuli iqneba mxolod bankrotobis wonasworobaSi.

amJamad arsebul pirobebSi sul ufro cxadi xdeba arsebiTi aucilebloba imisa, rom uari vTqvaT, ama Tu im qveynis SedarebiTi warmatebulobis gazomvaze fuladi erTeuliT da amis nacvlad gavzomoT igi Sinameuneobebis, fermebisa da sawarmoTa mier, produqciis realuri gamoSvebisa da moxmarebis fizikuri moculobis mixedviT. Tu viTarebas SevafasebT gazomvis am fizikur standartTa mixedviT, maSin davinaxavT rom msoflio ekonomika mTlianobaSi didi xania imyofeba kolapsisaken mimaval spiralur moZraobaSi, rac daiwyo ara ugvianes 1971 wlisa.

magram ar arsebobs amgvari ekonomikuri vardnis bunebrivi mizezi, arc anglo-amerikuli da arc yofili sabWoTa sistemis SemTxvevaSi. orive SemTxvevaSi damnaSavea cudi politika da ara bunebrivi procesebi. amJamad mimdinarebs post-ialtisturi wyobis rRvevis procesi, wyobisa, romelic damyarebuli iyo anglo-saqsur aliansze. igi gamowveulia meoTxedi saukunis ganmavlobaSi warmoebuli araswori politikiT ekonomikaSi da gansakuTrebiT mecnierebaSi zogadad. am mankier politikas eweoda da eweva faqtiurad yvela mTavroba da msoflios yvela saTanado instituti. amaSi damnaSavea cudi politika da ara buneba. Tu vinme gadmoxteba orsarTuliani saxlis saxuravidan da daimtvrevs fexebs, iqonios sindisi da nu uCivlebs sasamarTloSi gravitaciis kanons, zaralis asanazRaureblad. mxolod cudi politikuri kursi, romelTac aqamde wamoayenebden da misdevdenen aSS da sxva qveynebis fsevdoganaTlebuli moqalaqeebi, aris uSualo mizezi tanjvaTa im talRisa, romelsac dRes moucavs Cveni planeta.

 

 

 

 

Sinaarsisken

1. fiziko-ekonomikuri droiTi mwkrivebis[30] winaswari SedarebiTi analizi

neba damrTeT pirvel rigSi davasabuTo, rom vardna sul ufro matulobda, bolo 40 wlis ganmavlobaSi. roca amas movrCebi, im publikaciaTa safuZvelze, romelic Seexeba Cems mier 1948-52 wlebSi ganxorcielebul aRmoCenebs fizikuri ekonomikis mecnierebaSi[31], Sevecdebi giCvenoT filosofiuri azrovnebis is tipi, romelic unda iqnas gaziarebuli da danergili praqtikaSi, vaswavloT saxelmwifoTa wamyvan inteligencias, raTa maTma politikurma instituciebma qveyana ar gadaCexon ufskrulSi, saiTkenac dRes isini ubiZgeben mTel Cven planetas; es iqneboda xangrZlivi "SuasaukuneTa axali bneleTi".

nebismier adamians, romelsac aqvs ganaTleba Tundac romelime erT sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebaSi an mrewvelobis funqcionirebis operaciuli analizis sferoSi, Ria istoriuli statistikis gamoyenebiT iolad daamtkicebs, rom es vardna udavo faqtia, ukve 1971 wlidan moyolebuli. saWiroa mogawodoT sawyis mosazrebaTa minimumi, aucilebeli am movlenasTan dakavSirebul statistikur maCvenebelTa mosamzadeblad. es iqneba gzis gawmenda am moxsenebis centraluri debulebis TvalsaCinod dasasabuTeblad.

am gegmis aRwera warmoadgens mxolod aucilebel momzadebas mimdinare politikis ufro Rrma sakiTxebis gasagebad. amitom Sevecdebi statistikuri meTodi movxazo imdenad ubralod da mokled, ramdenis saSualebas momcems mocemuli dargi. imisaTvis rom ganxorcieldes aseTi gazomva 1963-1993 wlebis SualedisaTvis, unda daviwyoT tipiuri samomxmareblo sabazro kalaTis SeswavliT.

es Seicavs fizikuri moxmarebis ZiriTadi statiebs, plus momsaxurebis ori ZiriTadi kategoria: janmrTelobis dacva da ganaTleba. ra Tqma unda, Sinameurneobis moTxovnebi mosaxleobis erTi sulis mixedviT raRaca saxiT icvleba. isini erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdeba drois momentisagan damokidebulebiT, romlisTvis ganisazRvreba moxmareba da unda Seesabamebodes im kulturul dones, romelsac Cven vaRwevT iseTi Tvisebrivi maCveneblebiT, rogorebic aris sicocxlis xangrZlivoba, janmrTeloba da im drois xangrZlivoba, romelic gamoyenebulia ganaTlebisaTvis da ganviTarebis sxva aspeqtebisaTvis¾ rogorc ojaxisaTvis, aseve ojaxis calkeuli wevrisaTvis.

upirveles yovlisa aucilebelia davadginoT Sinameurneobis samomxmareblo kalaTis SemavsebelTa standartuli CamonaTvali, am elementebzs dafuZnebuli. Semdeg ki danrTeT neba sakuTar Tavs SevekiTxo: ra gvaris standarti dagvWirdeba SedarebisaTvis, Tu saqme gvaqvs gansxvavebul qveynebTan an erTi da igive qveyanasTan sxvadasxva istoriul periodSi? eqsperimenti praqtikulad Catardeba cvalebadi statistikuri maCveneblebiT, TiToeuli qveynis warmatebuli zrdis periodis ganmavlobaSi, rogorc wminda Siga produqciisaTvis, aseve cxovrebis saSualo donisTvisac. davakvirdeT urTierTkavSirs, romlis mixedviT icvleba Sinameurneobis namdvili moxmareba, Sinameurneobis social-ekonomikur Tavisebu-rebaTa da misi demografiuli Semadgenlobis mixedviT. Tu amas Semdeg mivubrundebiT nacionaluri samuSao Zalis standartuli struqturaTa ganxilvas, romelic moyvanilia Cems saxelmZRvaneloSi "gindaT icodeT yvelaferi ekonomikis Sesaxeb?"[32], maSin gavigebT, Tu rogor unda SevudgeT saWiro standartebis SemuSavebas, sakmarisi miaxloebiT.

magaliTad im epoqaSi, romelic win uZRoda XVIII da XIX saukuneebs¾vidre xorcs Seisxamda laibnicis[33] winadadebebi industriuli revoluciisaTvis, romlebic efuZneba siTbur manqanaTa sistemis gamoyenebas, romelTa teqnologia TandaTanobiT viTardeboda¾ nebismieri sazogadoeba iZulebuli iyo, rom misi samuSao Zalis 90% gamoyenebuli yofiliyo sasoflo-sameurneo samuSaoebSi. amasTan SedarebiT, dRevandeli teqnologiis da sasoflo-sameurneo produqciis pirobebSi, romelsac Cven vuwodebT "paritetuls", mTeli mosaxleobis soflis produqtebiT uxvad mosamarageblad sakmarisia, soflis meurneobis imave sferoebSi sul dakavebuli iyos samuSao Zalis 2%-ze naklebi. Sromis nayofierebis (productivity) es gaumjobeseba damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor maragdeboda da maragdeba fermeri aucilebeli samrewvelo saqonliT, aris Tu ara infrastruqturis sabazo elementebi saTanadod ganviTarebuli¾sarkinigzo transportis da eleqtromomaragebis xazebis CaTvliT, da rogor xorcieldeba wylis resursebis erTiani marTva.

Sinameurneobis bazris kalaTis Sevsebis ufro zusti standartis dadgenis amocanis gadawyvetis saWiroeba pirvelad maSin gaxda naTeli, roca Cven SevecadeT erTmaneTs SevadaroT Sinameurneobis bazris kalaTis Cveni standartuli CamonaTvali, bazris kalaTis sasoflo, sameurneo da samrewvelo saqonlis moTxovnebs, aRricxuls fizikuri erTeulebSi ¾ saSualod mosaxleobis erT sulze (per-kapita[34]). ase SeiZleba davinaxoT, rom arsebobs korelacia, erTs mxriv, saqonlis warmoebis sferoSi samuSao Zalis per‑kapita Sromis nayofierebasa (productivity) da meores mxriv, ojaxis per-kapita moTxovnilebebs Soris, yoveldRiuri arsebobisaTvis aucilebel fizikur saSualebze, agreTve samedicino da ganaTlebis sferos momsaxureobebze. amasTanave ojaxi Tavad monawileobs produqciis SeqmnaSi, Tavisi Sromisunariani wevrebiT.

roca statistika am kuTxiT ganixileba, gansakuTrebiT advilia im urTierTkavSirTa bunebis konceptualizacia, romlebic arsebobs Sromis nayofierebasa da ZiriTadi infrastruqturis iseTi formebis ganviTarebis xarisxTa Soris, rogoric aris: erTiani gadazidvebi, wylis meurneoba, energomomarageba, sanitaruli da qalaqis sabazo infrastruqtura ¾roca es yvelaferi daangariSebuli mosaxle-obis erT sulze da kvadratul kilometrze, saSualod.

Tu Cven xelT gveqneba aseTi analitikuri mosazrebebi, agreTve gaerosa da mis msgavs sxva organizaciaTa Ria statistikuri maCveneblebi 1963-1993 wlebis periodisaTvis, isini gvetyvis utyuar istorias. am drois ganmavlobaSi, materialuri warmoebis moculoba, gadaangariSebuli samuSao Zalis erT erTeulze, erTad aRebuli soflis da qalaqis mosaxleobisaTvis, Semcirda mTel msoflioSi. is rom msoflios zogierT regioni warmoadgens gamonakliss am wesidan, ver cvlis globalur suraTs (nax.1).

 

 

 

 

nax.1.

 

 

 

 

amave gziT SesaZlebelia davwmundeT imaSi rom vardnis tendencia SeimCneva jer kidev 1960-iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi, industrialuri ganviTarebis cxad da sul ufro mzard klebaTan erTad, Cveni planetis samxreT naxevarsferoSi. tendencia gaCnda rogorc ekonomikuri zrdis tempebis aSkara Seneleba, xolo Semdeg1971-74 wlebSi, is gadaizarda absolutur vardnaSi e.w. industriulad ganviTarebul seqtorSi, mTlianad, CaiTria ra "ganviTarebadi" seqtorebic. im qveynebmac ki, romlebmac 1971-81 wlebSi Tavi daaRwies absolutur vardnas, eWvs gareSea ganicades garemomcvel msoflioSi mimdinare tendenciis Sedegebi. zogadi mdgomareoba Cvens planetaze, mTeli 1980-iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi, xasiaTdeboda vardnis uwyveti da sayovelTao daCqarebis tendenciiT.

neba momeciT gamovTqva Cemi mosazreba, oficialuri da sazogadoebrivi azris mimarT SeerTebuli StatebSi, yovelive amis Sesaxeb. msgavsi dakvirveba sazogadoebrivi azris mimarT unda Catardes sxva qveynebSic. ikveTeba oTxi principialuri mizezi, romlebmac adamianTa umravlesoba aSS-Si SecdomaSi Seiyvana, aiZula ra isini erwmunaT 1980-iani wlebis angariSebi, anda amaswinandeli mtkicebebi[35], "ekonomikuri gamojansaRebis" Tu "ayvavebis" Sesaxebac ki.

pirveli, esaa aSS mosaxleobis umravlesobis amJamindeli mimndobloba.

gavleniani fabianeli[36] uolter lipmani[37], Tavis cnobil wignSi sazogadoebrivi azris Sesaxeb, gvTavazobs wmindad gebelsiseul meTods amerikelTa tvinis gasarecx-dasamuSaveblad[38], masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa gamoyenebiT. msgavsi faqtisaTvis da imave mizniT, devid rismenma[39] saxeli gauTqva XX saukunis Sua periodis CrdiloeT amerikelis sacodav tips, uwoda ra mas sxvisgan marTuli pirovneba ("Other-directed" personality). hana arendtma[40]¾erT dros martin haidegeris[41] sayvarelma, im haidegerisa, romelic iyo nicSeseuli yaidis wamyvani filosofosi nacisturi reJimis dros, wamoayena winadadeba: yvela, vinc ar Seesabameba tvingarecxil, "politikurad koreqtul", garedan marTvadi pirovnebis models, ostrakirebul[42] unda iqnas, vinaidan isini e.w. "avtoritaruli pirovnebebi arian" (authoritarian personality). saSualo amerikeli, Tu mas horizonts dauviwroeb, STabeWdilebiani "populisturi tipia", romelic iqamde daeSva, rom iolad Rebulobs nebismier SeTavazebas, rogorc ueWvel aqsiomas, romelsac mas aCeCeben masobriv gasarTob-sportul RonisZiebebze, holivudis produqciebSi, popularul kvazi-musikaSi¾misi sazogadoebrivi azris "politikurad koreqtul" formebSi mosaqcevad, "socialurad misaRebi" saxis gamosamuSaveblad[43].

Tu xSirad gaimeorebT, gebelsis[44] stilSirom ekonomikis baziss warmoadgens "Tavisufali konkurencia bazarze", rom ekonomika emorCileba miTiur "moTxovna-miwodebis kanons" an popularizebul tyuils, TiTqos aSS konstituacia efuZneboda j. lokis[45] principebs, an axalgazrda amerikis ekonomika daafuZnes adam smitis[46] ideebze¾maSin "garedan marTvadi" amerikeli (ix. zemoT) mzad iqneba aRiaros es ritualuri monaCmaxi rogorc umaRlesi da maradiuli WeSmariteba.

agreTve, amasve erTveba amerikuli ganaTlebis xarisxis kolapsis faqtori, gansakuTrebiT gamowveuli fabianelTa da maT msgavs tipTa zegavleniT, rogorebic gaxlavan jon diui[47] da misi mimdevrebi. amis Sedegad seriozulad dazianda TiTqmis yvela amerikelis kognitivuri ganviTareba. amas kidev ufro gaaqtiurebs "axali epoqis" iseTi "monatvinari", rogoric aris radikal-pozitivisturi "axali maTematika"[48], agreTve sxva damangreveli inovaciebi, bolo sami aTeuli wlis ganmavlobaSi.

axalgazrda kacis kognitivuri ganviTareba im xarisxamde, romelic damaxasiaTebelia mecnierebis mkacri stilis damoukidebeli msjelobisaTvis, Cveulebriv miiRweva mxolod iseTi saxis ganaTlebiT, romelic iwyeba berZeni da momdevno klasikosebis SeswavliT, romelic udides mniSvnelobas aniWebs maTematikis, biologiis da fizikis Seswavlas, raTa moswavlem Tu studentma xelaxla ganicados is aRmafrena, rac Tan axlda winaprebis mier gakeTebuli, TiToeuli mniSvnelovan revoluciur-aqsiomatur aRmoCenas. mcadarma cvlilebebma ganaTlebaSi (kerZod, algebruli formalizmebisa da iseTi saxelmZRvanelebis gamoyenebam, romlebic agrZelebs klasikuri da sxva originalur wyaroebTan brZolas) warmoSva umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone adanianis axal tipi¾aseTebi ki sWarboben umaRlesi samecniero xarisxebis mflobelTa Sorisac, romelTac fridrix Silerma[49] damamcireblad uwoda Brotgelehrte¾"puris natexisTvis momuSave mecnieri" (bread scholars).

"swavlebis" bihevioruli modelis danergvam, saqme iqamade miiyvana rom Rrma originaluri aRmoCenis unaris nacvlad, akademiuri da sxva fenaTa warmomadgenlebma saerTod dakarges damoukidebeli azrovnebis Cveva. pirvel rigSi es exeba aqsiomatur daSvebebs. es moraluri defeqti msjelobebSi Tavisi ukiduresi formiT swored im momentSi iCens Tavs, roca amerikeli xmauriT gamoxatavs sagnis Sesaxeb Tavis "damoukidebel azrs". ase rom, aburdul-Caburduli sazogadoebrivi azris suleluri amaoba, politikurad koreqtul fanatikoss gadaibirebs xolme imisken, rom man msxverpli Sewiros absurdul azrebs, romelTa miRebas mas Tavs axveven.

meore. erovnuli Semosavlis statistikuri aRricxvis arsebuli praqtika, damkvidrebuli samTavrobo da sxva farTe gavlenis mqone instituciaTa mier, romlebic adgens angariSebs, ukuagdebs yovelgvar mcdelobas, gatardes racionaluri gansxvaveba, nominaluri Semosavlis fizikurad usargeblo gafarToebebsa da sasargeblo warmoeba-moxmarebas Soris. am ukanasknelis magaliTad, Tu prostituciasa da narkotikebiT vaWroba legalizebuli iqneboda, maSin erTiani nacionaluri produqti (SeerTebul StatebSi) gaizrdeboda daaxloebiT 500 miliardi dola-riT, raimes realuri zrdis gareSe; gaizrdeboda mxolod im adamianTa mimndobloba, romelnic midrekilni arian irwmunon is, rasac Caagoneben (nax.2).

 

 

 

 

nax. 2.

 

 

 

 

amdenad, finansuri namatis SemadgenlobaSi, warmosaxviT faseulobaTa parazituli gamsxvileba, romelic xorcieldeba mraval-ricxovani, sruliad spekulaciuri formebiT, saRdeba rogorc erovnuli Semosavali, imave uflebebSi, rac aqvs: sakvebisa da tansacmlis warmoebas, ganaTlebas, samedicino momsaxurebas, xidebis, gvirabebisa da rkinigzis da misT mSeneblobas da momsaxurebas, samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas mrewvelobaSi. vidre finansuri spekulaciis tipis parazitul wyaroTa nominaluri Semosavali, Rirebulebriv maCveneblebSi, Warbobs klebas samrewvelo da samomxmareblo saqonelis infrastruqturaSi, manam statistikur gaerTianebaTa da informaciis masobriv saSualebaTa oficialuri "Wkuis-kolofa" mecnierebi kvlavac daJinebiT gaagrZeleben, TvalebSi fanatikuri muqaris SuqanTebulni, imis mtkicebas TiTqos Cveni nacionaluri ekonomika gamojanmrTelebis zRurblTanaa, metic sulac "gadaxurebulia zedmetad swrafi zrdisagan".

mesame. bolo 25 wlis ganmavlobaSi, gansakuTrebiT gasul aTwleulSi, oficialuri statistika, sul ufro metad da usircxvilod tyuoda, TiTqmis yvela maCvenebelSi. amas garda, man uari Tqva, erTian nacionalur Semosavals ar miaTvalos, ZiriTad samrewvelo infra-struqturaSi dagegmili, magram Seusrulebeli, saremonto da momsaxurebis samuSaoTa Rirebuleba, magaliTad, sarkinigzo sistemis, saavtomobilo gzebis, xidebis, wylis meurneobis, energetikuli sadgurebis da qselebis da a.S. (ix. nax.3). metic, aSS-Si, realurad arasodes arsebuli "damatebiTi Rirebulebis" trilioni dolarebi, avtomaturad da kumulatiurad zed iqna damatebuli im mizniT, rom moaxdinon, arasworad Sedgenili da uzomod gaberili, amerikis Siga erovnuli produqtis wliuri angariSis fabrikacia.

 

 

 

 

nax.3, orig. cxr.1

 

 

 

 

meoTxe. fordis fondma[50] 1964 wels gamoaqveyna, cru, magram didi gavlenis mqone angariSi "sammagi revolicia" (Triple Revolution), romelsac moyva "postindustriuli utopiis" doqtrinis gaCena[51]. aman ki gamoiwvia im procentis avTvisebiani zrda, romelic gamosaxavs aSS mTliani samuSao Zalidan umuSevrobis dones (dRes_1994 wels, udris 17%-s) an sxvadasxva saxis "momsaxurebis" sferoSi dasaqmebulobas, romlebic sinamdvileSi arafers mateben¾Tu uaresi ara¾arc wminda produqtis fizikur moculobas da arc amerikis ekonomikis Sromis nayofierebas (productivity) (nax.4.).

 

 

 

 

nax.4

 

 

 

 

imis miuxedavad rom is pirebi, romlebic ganekuTvnebian "swrafi kvebis" (fast food) TanamSromelTa msgavs aramwarmoeblur profesiebs, Rebuloben gacilebiT naklebi donis xelfass, vidre aucilebelia ojaxis Sesanaxad minimalur doneze, mainc am "momsaxurebaTa" SeerTebuli infliaciuri fasi saSinelia. yvelaze uares, yvelaze ufro parazitul profesiebs ganekuTvneba legalizebuli saTamaSo biznesi, narkotikebiT aralegaluri vaWroba da finansuri servisebi.

savsebiT SesaZlebelia imis ganWvreta (zusti dadgena ki SesaZlebelia SedarebiT martivi gaangariSebebiT) rom samrewvelo dasaqmebulo-bis amgvari gadafarva "momsaxureobebiT", Tavisi arsiT warmoadgens infliaciur sidamples. es, Tu politika ucvleli darCa, bolos da bolos daRupavs qveyanas. miuxedavad amisa, e.w. "eqspertebi" anu "molaparake tvinebi" (talking heads), televizoris ekranebidan da sxva saSualebiT enamoCleqili, sulSi Camwvdomi RuRuniT amerikelebs Caagoneben: "gaimeoreT CemTan erTad: ekonomikis Tanamedrove forma¾ postindustriuli, servisis ekonomikaa". magram uol-stritis mefe ki SiSvelia! mimndobi brbo, romelic misCerebia SiSvel mefes, xmamaRla yiJinebs da gamoxatavs Tavis aRfrTovanebas, mefis samosis SesaniSnav qsovilisa da gawyobis Sesaxeb.

 

 

 

 

davaneboT Tavi mimndob sazogadoebriv azrss. ufro upriania cxadad vaCvenoT, Tu ra mecnieruli mniSvneloba aqvs aseT daJinebul yuradRebas, momsaxurebis sferoSi dasaqmebis masStabTa paTologiuri gafarToebisadmi.

axal dromde, e.i. 550 an sul mcire 300 wlis wineT, mosaxleobis 90%-ze mets unda emuSava soflis meurneobis sferoSi ubralod imisTvis rom daRupvisagan gadaerCina mTeli sazogadoeba.

samuSao Zalis nawili, romelic gamonTavisuflda soflis meurneobidan teqno-logiuri progresis wyalobiT, Seiwoveboda, mcire, magram dasawyisisaTvis TiTqmis proporciuli zrdiT, produqciuli dasaqmebis or materialur sferoSi, umTavresad: pirveliamSeneblobisa da ZiriTadi sawarmoo infra-struqturis eqspluataciis sfero, xolo meoreindividualuri Sinameurneobebis an igive warmoebisaTvis saWiro, fizikurad aucilebel moxmarebis saSualebaTa warmoebis sfero. prezident jorj voSingtonis administraciis finansTa ministrma aleqsandr hamiltonma[52] zustad iwinaswarmetyvela Sexmatkilebuli zrda samoqalaqo industriisa da soflis meurneobis produqtiulobisaTavis saxelganqmul moxsene-baSi kongresisadmi "manufaqturaTa Sesaxeb" (On the Subject of Manufactires), 1791 wels. politikuri ekonomiis amerikuli sistemis es gamokvleva mimarTuli iyo adam smitis46 koncepciis winaaRmdeg. swored am moxsenebas daefuZna Cveni federaluri respublikis konstitucia.

amas garda, realuri saqonlis saqalaqo materialuri warmoebaSi dasaqmebuli samuSao Zalis xvedriTi wilis zrdasTan erTad, uaxles istoriaSi mimdinareobda sxva Tanmimdevruli cvlilebebi dasaqmebis struqturaSi. isini dakavSirebuli iyo sxva, dasaqmebis saerTo moculobis mixedviT SedarebiT nakleb sferosTan, sadac muSakebi uSualod ar awarmoeben materialur produqcias da ar qmnian infrastruqturas, magram nawildebian socialuri Rirebulebis "zednadeb" elementTa oTx statias Soris: ganaTleba, janmrTelobis dacva, mecniereba-da-teqnologia, rogorc aseTi, da marTva.

zogad monaxazebSi, cvlilebebi am mimarT-ulebiT¾Zveli, winaindustriuli, bukolikuri[53] bazisidan¾ukavSirdeba ganviTarebis sam urTierTdakavSirebul process: muSakTa fizikur Sromis nayofierebis zrdas¾samuSao Zalis erTi erTeulis mixedviT, Sromis socialuri dayofis garTulebas da energo-nakadebis koncentraciis zrdas. rac Seexeba cvlilebebs samuSao Zalis struqturaSi¾rogorc TviT teqnologiuri donis amaRlebas, aseve am matebis tempis zrdasTan erTad, matulobs moTxovnileba uSualod mecnierebaSi da teqnologiaSi dasaqmebulobis gazrdaze. aseve izrdeba moTxovnebi ganaTlebisadmi¾rogorc kumula-tiurad, aseve teqnologiuri progresis tempebis Sesabamisad. moTxovnebi ganaTlebisadmi da masTan dakavSirebuli SinameurneobaTa wevrebis kulturuli saWiroebebisadmi zrdis mosaxle-obis xangrZlivad janmrTeli sicocxlis mniSvnelobas, agreTve sxva yvelafersac, rac amis qveS igulisxmeba. gamarTleba SeiZleba moeZebnos marTvasTan dakavSirebuli zednadebi xarjebis mxolod im matebas, romelic Tavis arsiT warmodgeba, industriis, ganaTlebis, mecnieruli progresis da janmrTelobis dacvis moTxovnaTa zrdis anarekls. fizikuri produqtiulobis xangrZlivi zrda, mosaxleobis erTi sulis da kvadrateli kilometris mixedviT, agreTve ukavSirdeba Sefardebis zrdas, samrewvelo saqonlis (warmoebis saSualebis) gamoSvebis sferoSi dasaqmebulobisa, saxalxo moxmarebis saqonlis warmoebaSi dasaqmebulobasTan.

aqedan unda gamoiyos erTi mniSvnelovani momenti: uzarmazari, gonier sazRvrebs gadacilebuli administraciuli dasaqmebis masStabTa saSiSroeba. gaumarTleblad zrdadi danaxarjebis erToblioba, romlebic dakavSirebulia vaWrobasTan da administri-rebasTan, saeWvo dasaqmebulobis zrdasTan, e.w. "momsaxurebis" gafarToebad sferoSi, warmoSobs infliaciur ekonomikur moSlas, romelic enaTesaveba kibos metastazebis mier sasicocxlo procesebis dazianebas. saboloo jamSi, am avadmyofobas SeuZlia sikvdilamde miiyvanos saxalxo meurneoba zustad iseve, rogorc is nela, magram naRdad klavs amerikis ekonomikas, am bolo ormoci wlis ganmavlobaSi¾ugono, postindustriul utopiaSi dreifis welTa ganmavlobaSi.

roca gacnobierebulia am dakvirvebaTa mniSvneloba, gasagebi xdeba SedarebiTi statistikuri analizisadmi Semdegi, ramdenadme gamartivebul midgomaTa sasargebloba.

swori, ganzogadoebuli Sefasebis micema, nebismieri qveynis saxalxo meurneobaSi Tu msoflio ekonomikaSi mimdinare fardobiTi mateba-klebisaTvis, romelic xdeba miyolebiT ramodenime wlisa Tu aTwleulTa ganmavlobaSi, Semdegnairadaa SesaZlebeli.

gadaviyvanoT yvela maCveneblis monacemebi mosaxleobis erT sulze (per-kapita), Sina-meurneobaze da kvadratul kolometrze. gavzomoT ZiriTadi infrastruqtura, soflis meurneoba, samTo saqme, mrewveloba (warmoeba, mSenebloba¾infrastuqturis garda) da dasaqme-buloba ganaTlebaSi, mecnierebasa da teqno-logiaSi da janmrTelobis dacvaSi. gavzomoT moxmareba da warmoeba, Sesabamisad, Semdeg gamosaxulebebSi: calkeul Sinameurneo samomxmareblo bazris kalaTebi (fizikuri moxmareba, plus janmrTelobis dacva da ganaTleba), gadaangariSebuli mosaxleobis erT sulze, Sinameurneobaze da kvadratul kolometrze; samoxmareblo kalaTebi warmoebis saSualebebisa (moxmarebis da warmoebis)¾ mosaxleobis erT sulze, Sinameurneobaze da kvadratul kolometrze; warmoebis saSualebaTa Sefardeba, saxalxo moxmarebis saqonelbrunvasTan, mosaxleobis erT sulze, Sinameurneobaze da kvadratul kolometrze (nax.5).

 

 

 

 

nax.5 (originalSi cxrili 2)

SeniSvna: dadgenili iyo TiToeuli sagnis warmoebis done 1967 wels. Semdeg igi gaiyo SinameurneobaTa ricxvze, imave wlisaTvis. aman mogvca warmoebis done 1 Sinameurneobaze gadaangariSebiT. magaliTad, 1967 wels, aSS iyo 59 237 000 Sinameurneoba da nawarmoebi iyo 86 014 saxarato dazga. amdenad, 1 Sinameurneobaze gadaangariSebiT, damzadebuli iyo 0,001452 saxarato dazga. 1967 wlis done miRebulia 1-ad, xolo yvela saxis done momdevno wlebSi, edreboda mas. 1990 wels, aSS-Si damzadebulia mxolod 0,000308 saxarato dazga, erT Sinameurneobaze, rac Seadgens 1967 wlis donis mxolod 21,2%-s.

1967-dan dawyebuli, 1990 wlisaTvis, warmoebis doneebi erT Sinameurneobaze gadaTvliT, rogorc samrewvelo, aseve samomxmareblo bazris kalaTebis Semavsebel saganTa umetesobisaTvis Semcirda 7_90 %-iT. amasTanave, saganTa umravlesobisaTvis, kolapsma Seadgina 40%-ze meti. es uCvenebs dacemas rogorc sawarmoo, aseve samoxmareblo bazris kalaTebSi erTad da cxadyofs aSS uunarobas uzrunvelyos aRwarmoeba.

 

 

 

 

am statistikis ganxilvisas, yuradReba mivaqcioT Semdeg moments. saWiroa erTmaneTisagan ganvasxvavoT Sromis nayofiereba ¾uSualod daqiravebuli Sromis fulad gamosaxulebaSi SefasebiT gazomili, im Sromis nayofierebisagan, romelic gazomilia gamoSvebuli produqciis aRricxviT Sedarebad fizikur erTeulebSi ("sabazro kalaTisa"), rogorc es miRebulia fizikur ekonomikaSi. magaliTad, gavzomoT fizikuri ekonomikis erTeulebSi qveynis samuSao Zalis wili, romelic aucilebelia Sinameurneobis sabazro kalaTis CamonaTvalTa uzrunvelsayofad samuSao Zalis yvela warmomadgenelTa mier.

pirvel monetarul SemTxvevaSi, roca gamoiyeneba yvelaze zogadi gazomvebi, romlebic gakeTebulia pirveli miaxloebiT, Sedegi gamoiyureba ase: warmoebuli saqonlis sabiTumo fasebSi raelizaciiT miRebuli Tanxas vaklebT maT damzadebaze daxarjuli masalis Rirebulebas. miviRebT sxvaobas, romlis sidide daaxloebiT Seesabameba nominalur (fulad) "damatebiT Rirebulebas". meore SemTxvevaSi vakeTebT analogiur miaxloebiT gazomvebs, magram fulad gamosaxulebebs vcvliT danaxarjebisa da gamoSvebis fizikuri sabazro kalaTebiT. es gansazRvravs "damatebiTi Rirebulebis" fizikur moculobas (pirobiTad-wminda produqciis), gadaangariSebuls mosaxleobis erT sulze, calke aRebul Sinameurneobaze da erT kvadratul kilometrze. am momentidan neba damrTeT ganvixilo mxolod fizikuri gazomvebi, nacvlad fuladisa.

dasawyisSi srulvyoT uxeSi fizikuri gazomvebi. neba damrTeT vigulisxmoT, rom "damatebiTi Rirebulebis" fizikuri moculoba aris wiladis mricxveli, xolo mis mniSvnelad miviRoT erToblivi fizikuri investiciebi (samuSao Zalis erTeulis mixedviT) saSinao Tu sxva mis msgavs samuSao Zalis mwarmoeblur moxmarebaze da warmoebis fizikuri kapitali. miRebuli fardoba saSualebas mogvcems gavTvaloT da sworad SevafasoT gamoyenebul saSualebaTa brunvis efeqturoba ("CadebaTa" efeqturoba), naturalur da ara fulad maCveneblebSi. am dazustebuli Sefardebis erTi aSkara upiratesoba isaa, rom igi asaxavs ufro zust Tanafardobas Sromis nayofierebaTa Soris, lokalur ubanze da saxalxo meurneobis mTel seqtorSi.

rom SevadaroT fizikuri gamoSveba fizikur danaxarjebsorive am maCvenebels gamovsaxavT SromiTi danaxarjebis erTeulebSi. masin Tavisi SinaarsiT isini pirvel miaxloebaSi gazomili iqneba uSualo mwarmoebluri Sromis saaTebis raodenobiT, romlebic gamoyenebul iqna warmoebaSi. sabazro kalaTis TiToeuli komponentisaTvis es "nedli" saaTebi Caswordeba, roca erTmaneTs Seupirispireben nakeTobis uSualo damzadebaSi dasaqmebul SinameurneobaTa realur Sromas da samomxmareblo sabazro kalaTis standartul moxmarebas. am ukanasknelis maCvenebeli ki gamoiyvaneba gasaSualebis gziT¾uSualod warmoebaSi dasaqmebuli SinameurneobaTa mier gamoyenebuli muSakebis saerTo ricxvisa, qveynis masStabiT samuSao Zalis saerTo ricxvTan, romlebic uSualod arian dasaqmebulni warmoebis sferoSi. es iZleva saSualebas miviRoT moxmarebis saSualo Sefaseba uSualo Sromis erT erTeulze, saSualod Sina-meurneobisaTvis¾muSakisa, romlebic uSualodaa dasaqmebuli warmoebis sferoSi. am taqtikis meSveobiT SeiZleba vipovoT saWiro maCvenebeli, TiToeuli konkretuli SemTxvevisaTvis. am gziT da industrialur-sainJinro gaTvlaTa gamoyenebiT SesaZlebelia miviRoT saaTebis saSualo raodenoba, warmoebis nebismieri sexeobisaTvis.

ase rom, zogierT sistemur analitikoss kembrijidan, romelic zedapirulad azrovnebs, anda vasili leontievis[54] "danaxarji-gamoSvebis" (input-output) sqemis msgavs mimdevars, SeiZleba moeCvenos rom Cven unda vixilavdeT SemTxvevas, roca moxmarebis erTi saxis saqoneli TiTqosda iwarmoeba, moxmarebis sxva aseTive saqonelTa meSveobiT. sinamdvileSi, Cven daSveba Semogvyavs imisaTvis rom ukuvagdoT swored es azri. SesaZloa warmoiqmnas STabeWdileba, TiTqosda uSualo mwarmoebluri Sromis dros saqonelTa gamoyeneba axdens maT modalur[55] TviTaRwarmoebas, negentropiuli saxiT. magram es mxolod gamosaxavs Sromis unikalur funqcias, gansxvavebiT samrewvelo nakeTobaTa nebismieri sxva saxis gamoyenebisagan. maSasadame, Cven pirdapir ukuvagdeT XVIII saukunis frangi da Seicareli fiziokratTa[56] aqsiomaturi daSveba da vambobT Semdegs. mxolod SromiT process Seswevs unari funqcionalur procesebs zed daaqsovos iseTi negentropuli transformaciebi, romlebic maT gadaiyvans ufro maRal mdgomareobaSi[57]. ukeTesia amas ewodos "evoluciuri tipis transformaciebi". Tanmimdevrulad ganviTarebadi, sicocxlisunariani sazogadoe-bis is modaluri forma, romelzec Cven sinamdvileSi vuTiTebT, warmoadgens imis anarekls, rac aRwerilia dabadebis wignSi, bibliidan¾1:26-28.[58]

 

 

 

 

Tu ganvixilavT Sefardebas, romlis mricxvelSi dgas samrewvelo seqtorSi dasaqmebulTa muSakis mqone SinameurneobaTa moqmedeba, xolo mniSvnelSi¾fizikuri danaxarjebi, plus qveynis, rogorc erTiani mTelis Semosavali, gaTvlili erT Sinameurneobaze, maSin miviRebT saxalxo meurneobis fardobiTi Sromis nayofierebis sasargeblo Sefasebas.

am gziT Cven SegviZlia SevadaroT sxvadasxva qveynebi, an erTi da igive qveyana drois gansxvavebul periodebSi. es SeiZleba vakeToT calkeuli seqtorebis mixedviT, anda im rezulatTa mixedviT, romlebic TiToeul samrewvelo seqtors gaaCnia, mTel qveyanasTan, rogorc mTelTan, TanafardobaSi moyvaniT, gamoTvlis msgavsive xerxiT.

Sinaarsisken

1.1. miTi "iafi Sromis" Sesaxeb

saxelmwifoTa fardobiTi Sromis nayofierebis Sefasebisadmi aseTi midgoma uzrunvelyofs martiv, magram CvenTvis gadamwyveti mniSvnelobis mqone Sedegs. mas saaSkaraoze gamoaqvs sicrue, britaneli ekonomistis daviT rikardos popularuli miTidan, im "fardobiTi upiratesobis" (comperative adventage) Sesaxeb, romelsac TiTqosda flobs "iafi Sroma" (cheap labor). Cveni Sexeduleba "Tavisufali vaWrobis" farTod gavrcelebul TvalTmaqcobaze saSualebas iZleva miviRoT im spiralis miaxloebiTi grafiki[59], romelic ufro zustad gamosaxavs bolo 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi mimdinare sayovelTao ekonomikuri kolapsis namdvil process. uolstritis dRevandeli finansuri saxlebi, daJinebiT mouwodeben amerikul korporaciebs, raTa maT TavianTi samrewvelo dawesebulebani ganaTavson, magaliTad, romeliRac sustad ganviTarebul saxelmwifoSi, romelic cnobilia Tavisi xelsayreli sagadaxado klimatiT da iafi muSaxeliT. isini Semdegnairad amSvideben CrdiloeT amerikelebs, romelTac aseTi arCevani samuSaos dakargvis safrTxes uqmnis: "Tu gsurT ar dauSvaT rom Tqveni samuSao "gafrindes "iafi Sromis bazarze, saWiroa mxolod daswioT sakuTari pretenzia anazRaurebaze iseT donemde, romelic win aRudgeba sazogadoebriv konkurencias". msgavsadve, universitetebis kaTedrebze doqtor-Jongliorebi[60] yvelas arwmuneben, vinc sakmarisad sulelia imisTvis rom es daijeros, TiTqos sazRvargareTuli wyaroebidan importi warmoadgens sikeTes amerikeli momxmareblisaTvis da maSasadame mTlianad qveynis ekonomikisaTvis.

importuli saqoneli marTlac warmoadgens sikeTes ekonomikisaTvis, magram sxva garemoebebSi da ara im saxiT, romlebzec miuTiTeben es amerikeli doqtor-Jongliorebi. Tuki teqnologiurad ganviTarebuli ekonomika SesZlebs, gamoanTavisuflos Tavisi kulturulad ganviTrebuli samuSao Zala dabali kvalifikaciuri dasaqmebidan da gadaiyvans maT ufro srulyofili teqnologiis produqciis warmoebaSi, ufro maRali Sromis nayofierebiT, maSin amerikis saerTo efeqturoba, kerZod mosaxleobis erT sulze, gaizrdeb, yvelas sasikeTod. ase rom, Tu Cven gadavcemT sabazro kalaTis im saganTa warmoebas, romlebic mcire kvalifikacias moiTxovs, im qveynebs, sadac samuSao Zalas jer kidev ar miuRwevia aSS samuSao Zalis kvalifikaciamde, amiT movaxdenT samuSao Zalis optimizacias orive qveyanaSi¾sustad ganviTarebulSi misi amaRlebiT, xolo metad ganviTarebulSiefeqturobis gazrdiT.

pirdapir sawinaaRmdego Sedegs vRebulobT im SemTxvevaSi, roca dasaqmebuli amerikeli samuSao Zalis nawils gadaviyvanT umuSevris statusSi an gadavaadgilebT ufro naklebi kvalifikaciis dabal-anazRaurebad samuSaoze, an kidev, Tu CamovacilebT maT realuri saqonlis warmoebas da gadaviyvanT momsaxurebis sferoSi. aRwerili SemTxvevebidan pirvelSi, amerikis ekonomikas eqneba damatebiTi produqcia da Semosavlebi, romelic saWiroa imisaTvis, rom gavxdeT ganviTerebadi qveynebis produqciis bazari; meore SemTxvevaSi amerikis SinameurneobaTa msyidvelobiTi unari mcirdeba, ris Sedegad Seikveceba amerikis bazari, mTlianobaSi.

im realur pirobebSi, romelic yalibdeba Tavisufali vaWrobis ideologiis xma-CaxleCil mxardamWerTa nebis sapirispirod, dRevandeli postindustriuli politikis "dezertiri saamqros" (runaway shop) efeqti, realuri sasargeblo saqonlis warmoebaSi, Seamcirebs amerikis dasaqmebuli samuSao Zalis procents. samuSao-dakarguli mSromelebi am "dezertiri" (runaway) industriuli sawarmoebidan an umuSevrebi xdebian, an dasaqmebuli SedarebiT periferiul, arsebiTad ki usargeblo samuSaoTi. amerikel momwodebelTa industriuli Sesyidvebi, gansakuTrebiT ki saSualo da wvrili mewarmeTa da saremonto samsaxurisa, mkveTrad mcirdeba. agreTve, met-naklebi xarisxiT irRveva sagadasaxado Semosavlebi dazarebuli qalaqebidan da regionebidan.

warmoebis "masStabTa Sekveca" (downsizing) amerikis ZiriTadi, agroindustrialuri mwarmoeblebisaTvis ¾mosaxleobis erT sulze, agreTve amerikis mTliani samuSao Zalis xvedriTi wilis Semcireba (kvlav "masStabTa Semcireba"), romelic dasaqmebulia realuri saqonlis warmoebaSi, adasturebs amerikis ekonomikis mier miRweuli realuri msyidvelobiTi unaris Sesustebas da misi fizikuri moculobis Semcirebas, arawamgebianobis donis niSnulis qvemoT (nax.6).

 

 

 

 

nax.6.

 

 

 

 

am da sxva politikis Sedegad, romelsac miuxedavad yvelafrisa warmoSobs masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa mier farTed reklamirebuli mosazrebebi, dRes gvaqvs amerikis realuri ekonomikis Semdegi suraTi.

1965-1970 ww amerikis realuri ekonomikis sufTa zrdis tempi praqtikulad daeca nulovan maCveneblamde, mTlianad saxalxo meurneobaSi (gamoSvebis fizikuri moculobis zrdis Sefasebis midedviTgadaangariSebulis mosaxleobis erT sulze, Sinameurneobaze da kvadratul kilometrze). am klebas biZgi misca maRal-stimulaciuri "post-sputnikuri" aviakosmosuri "saswrafo programis" (crash programm) da sxva programaTa "masStabebis Sekvecam", romlebic iTvaliswinebda investiciur sagadasaxado SeRavaTebs; maTze TiTqmis mTlianad iyo damokidebuli amerikis ekonomikis gamojansaReba 1957-60 wlebSi. aRniSnuli "masStabebis Sekveca" gaRrmavda iseTi postmodernistul sisuleleTa zemoqmedebiT, rogorebic aris robert Teobaldis[61] "sammagi revolucia", robert maknamaras[62] giJuri "sistemuri analizi", herbert markuzes[63] "ultra-memarcxeneoba" da sxvadasxva 'postindustriuli" utopiebi.

 

 

 

 

saerTaSoriso masStabiT, am da misma msgavsma politikurma aqciebma saqme miiyvanes britaneTis funti-sterlingis dasustebamde, 1967 wlis noemberSi, premier-ministr harold vilsonis mmarTvelobis dros. igive faqtorebma gamoiwvies aSS dolaris SeuCerebeli dacemis pirveli raundi, 1968 wlis Tebervalsa da martis pirvel naxevarSi.

1970-71 ww, aSS-Si, wminda danaxarjebi ZiriTad samrewvelo infrastruqturaze (axali mSeneblobis da sarekunstruqcio samuSaoTa Sefardeba cveTisa da daZvelebis masStabebTan), Sevida negatiuri zrdis fazaSi, romelic ara Tu grZeldeboda, aramed Cqardeboda tempis SemcirebasTan erTad da ar Semcirebula dRemde. amiT gamowveuli aucilebeli (magram ara-ganxorcielebuli) xarjebi¾wylis meurneobis remontisaTvis, transportisaTvis, energo-sistemisaTvis, sayovelTao sanitariissaTvis da saqalaqo infrastruqturisaTvis¾dolariT gamosaxul ucvlel fasebSi ukve aRwevs ramodenime trilion dolars.

1971 wels, erTdrouli krizisi firmebSi "kraisleri"(Chrysler) da "pen sentral" (Pen Central), warmoadgenda signals aSS dolaris rRvevis meore raundis dawyebis Sesaxeb, romelmac daRupvisaken waiyvana breton-vudsis oqroTi-rezervirebuli monetaruli sistema¾dawyebuli 1971 wlis martidan, imave wlis 15 agvistomde.

amerikuli samrewvelo seqtoris masStabebis Semdgomi Semcireba Tanmimdevrulad gamoiwvia niqsonis administraciis programebma¾e.w. "faza 1"-ma da "faza 2"-ma. maT kvaldakval, ekonomikaze gasaocrad depresiuli zegavlena hqonda saxelmwifo mdivan henri kisinjeris mier opek-Si(OPEC) ganxorcielebul fands, navTobis fasze. man es gaakeTa londonSi bazirebuli navTobis im transnacionalur firmaTa sasargeblod, romlebic maSin cnobili gaxda "Svidi dis" (Seven Sisters) saxeliT. amerikis saSinao da sagareo politikis warmarTva am mimarTulebiT, TviT aSS saqcieli mTlianobaSi, daaCqara da ganaxorciela politikur gadawyvetilebaTa paketma, romelsac mxars umagrebda devid rokfeleris "sammxrivi komisia" (Trilateral Commission) da "saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis sabWos" (The New York Council on Foreign Rellations) "oTxmociani wlebis proeqti" ("Project 1980s"), niu‑iorkidan. es mimarTulebebi Seicavda RonisZiebebs "Sokuri Tarapiidan", romelic SemoTavazebuli iyo 1979 wlis oqtomberSi, pol volkeris (Paul A. Volcker) mier. maSin es ukanaskneli prezidentma karterma is-is oyo daniSna federalur rezervTa Tavmjdomared. TaRliTobam, romelic ganaxorciela volkerma, maRali saprocento anaricxebis meSveobiT¾rac pirvelad SemoTavazebuli iyo xsenebuli "saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis sabWos" "programa 1980"-Si da romelsac mxars uWerdnen lobistebi "samxrivi komisiidan"¾dauyonebliv daiwyo katastrofuli zemoqmedeba amerikis ekonomikaze. amdenad, mTeli 80-iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi amerikis ekonomika ganicdida kolapss yvela warmoebiT sferoSi, garda zogierTi eleqtronuli da masTan iribad dakavSirebuli kenedis aviakosmosuri programis ganStoebebisa. 1985-1992 wlebSi, margaret tetCerisa da jorj buSis mier amoqmededulma anglo-amerikulma politikam, gamoiwvia amerikisa da msoflio ekonomikis Sekvecis tempTa aCqareba 1980-ian wlebSi, kolapsis isedac TiTqmis mourCenel procesSi.

"masStabTa Sekveca" iqca iracionalur, TiTqmis fanatikur kultad. amJamad popularuli es miTi Seicavs Semdeg sicrues. TiTqos aucilebelia planetis mosaxleobis 85%-is CaZirva musris gamvleb barbarosobaSi, raTa amis Sedegad, momdevno erTi saukunis ganmavlobaSi, dedamiwis macxovrebelTa raodenoba Seikvecos amJamindelis 15%-ze, rom gadarCenilebs Semdeg mieceT saSualeba icxovron SedarebiT usafrTxoebasa da stabilurobaSi. es sicrue eyrdnoba mcdar aqsiomatur daSvebas, romlis safuZvelia farTed gavrcelebul dabneuloba, cnobili rogorc "dabali gadasaxadebisa da iafi Sromis" "SefardebiTi upiratesoba".

mSvenieri da aucilebeli politika ki iqneboda, sul ufro xarisxiani da iafi realuri saqonlis warmoebis gafarToeba. am metad keTilSobilur miznis realizacia moiTxovs mudmiv Tanadgomas, romelsac Tan unda axldes progresul teqnologiaTa mudmivi dafinanseba. aseT teqnologiebs ki warmoSobs swrafi samecniero progresi, romlis gza gadis Tanamedrove astrofizikis da mikrofizikis sazRvrebze. cxovrebis pirobebis gaumjobeseba aseve damokidebulia sabazo samrewvelo infrastruqturis ganviTarebaze. am moTxovnaTa ugulvebelyofa SeuZlebelia, ekonomikaSi damangreveli Sedegebis gareSe.

magaliTad, transportis sferoSi aucilebelia, mgzavrTa da tvirTTa iafad da swrafad gadaadgileba daniSnulebis adgilamde. aucilebelia saimedo wyalmomarageba (ix. nax.7). aucilebelia sakmarisad da xarisxianad energo-momarageba, adgilobrivi komunikaciebi, sanitaria, ganaTleba da janmrTelobis dacvis sistemebi. garda am urTierTgadajaWvuli pirobebisa, mniSvnelovania gvaxsovdesTiToeuli momuSavis fizikuri Sromis nayofierebis potencialuri done, samuSao Zalis, janmrTelobisa da kulturuli ganviTarebis funqciaa, principSi.

 

 

 

 

nax.7 (orig. cxr. #3)

saxalxo meurneobis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis erTerTi mTavari niSania misi unari moimaragos sakuTari Tavi wyliT. gansxvaveba amaSi, 1970 wels, sam industriul (aSS, gfr da iaponia) da or ganviTarebad (indoeTi, CineTi) qveyanas Soris mniSvnelovani iyo. erT Sinameurneobaze gaTvliT, industriuli qveynebi iyenebda samrewvelo daniSnulebis 10 an 20-jer met wyals, vidre ganviTarebadi qveynebi. erT sulze gaangariSebiT, gansxvaveba kidev ufro metia. kanonzomieria, nawilobriv esec ganapirobebda ufro met samrewvelo produqtiulobas, industrialur qveynebSi.

 

 

 

 

nebismier SemTxvevaSi, situaciebi adgilebze, romelTac gaaCnia warmoebis investicirebis aseTi SesaZleblobebi, unda Seiqmnas ZiriTadad im sazogadoebaTa meSveobiT da xarjze, romlebSic ganTavsebul iqna investiciebi. aseT sazogadoebas eqneba unari (da survili), moaxdinos aucilebel wanamZRvarTa aRwarmoeba "garemomcvel garemoSi", an is amisaTvis iqneba politikurad gamousadegari. Tu is mzadaa akeTos es xalisiT, maSin amgvar sazogadoebas unda aunazRaurdes danaxarjebi im moculobiT, romelic sakmarisia am srulyofaTa dasafaravad. magram SesaZloa is aRmoCndes uunaro amisi keTebisaTvis, didi survilis SemTxvevaSic ki. Tu investorTa didi raodenoba daqiravebul muSaxels da sxva maT msgavsT SromisaTvis uxdis imdenad cotas, rom qveyana gadis im SesaZleblobis farglebidan, rac aucilebelia "garemomcvel"''pirobaTa aRwarmoebis gansagrZobad, maSin iafi Sromis Semdgomi gafarToeba-gangrZoba, Tamxleb sagadasaxado SemosavalTa klebis gamo, qveyanas sabolood miiyvans spiralurad mzard kolapsamde.

sapirispiro SemTxvevaSi, roca kapital-dabandebis "iafi Sromis regioni", roca iq principSi sakmarisad maRalia sagadasaxado Semosavlebi da anazRaurebis done, romelnic qmnis SesaZleblobebs da warmoebisaTvis aucilebel pirobebs, sinamdvileSi sulac ar iqneba qveyana, romelSic Sroma "iafia". im memkvidreobis magaliTi, romelic datoves XVIII s. holandielma da britanelma koloniza-torebma, agreTve XIX s. britaneTis imperializmma Cveni planetis samxreTSi mdebare saTanado regionebSi, mowmobs imaze, rom iafi monuri an anazRaurebadi kolonialuri Sromis "SedarebiTi upiratesoba" swored kolonialistTa unarSia¾gaataron mosaxleobis masobrivi ganadgurebis da dapyrobili regionTa bunebrivi resursebis Zarcvis politika, e.i. nacisturi tipis saokupacio mmarTveloba.

amdenad, ekonomikuri principis saqmea, raimes warmoebis realuri Rirebuleba, ekonomikuri seqtoris nacionalur ifrastruqturaSi moqcevis CaTvliT, ganxilul iqnas yvela im bunebriv da gadamuSavebad resursTa aRwarmoebisa da gaumjobesebis realur fasad, romlebzec damokidebulia warmoeba adgilebze droTa ganmavlobaSi¾warmoeba Tanabari an ufro meti raodenobiT da ukeTesi xarisxiT, im SemTxvevaSic ki, roca es yvelaferi dafuZnebulia adgilobriv kapital-dabandebebze. realurad Cadebul investiciaTa saerTo xarjTa mimarT unda iTqvas: warmoebaze gakeTebulma yovelma investiciam unda ikisros Tavisi wili sazrunavi mTeli mosaxleobis potencialis aRwarmoebaSi, radgan mis SinameurneobebSi izrdebian daqiravebuli momuSaveni.

 

 

 

 

Sinaarsisken

 

 

 

 

"gayvlefili aqtivebi"

1960-iani wlebis Sua periodidan moyolebuli, amerikeli finansistebi Seeguen amerikis ekonomikis fizikur kolapss, romelic gamowveuli iyo maTive postindustriuli politikiT. isini am kolapss pasuxoben imiT, rom sul ufro met ZalisxmeviT mimarTaven "aqtivTa yvlefis" (assets-stripping) sxvadasxva formebs. "aqtivTa yvlefis" qveS igulisxmeba finansuri Semosavlis mopovebis sxvadasxva xerxi, materialuri Tu fuladi aqtivebis Sesyidvis da xelaxla gayidvis gziT, roca Sesyidva xdeba ufro dabali fasebiT, vidre materialur bazaTa aRdgeniTi fasebia¾fasebi, romlebic maT udevs safuZvlad, maTTvis gawerili nominaluri finansuri Rirebulebis mixedviT. "gadasayrel obligaciaTa"[64] garSemo warmoebuli saqmeebi, amgvari Zarcvis erTi magaliTia. zogierTi mkiTxvelisaTvis iqneb sasargeblo iyos "aqtivTa yvlefis" sxva magaliTic.

ganvixiloT tipiuri SemTxveva, roca bankiri, Sekruli organizebuli danaSaulebriv wreebTan ¾magaliTad iseTTan, rogorsac winaT akontrolebda meier lanski[65]¾emsaxureba vinme mimndob klients, mis investiciaTa sabanko momsaxurebiT. dRes am bankirs Cafiqrebuli aqvs misi gayvlefa. igi yvelanairad efereba am "Sesawirav xbos", raTa kidev ufro Casuqdes da ufro gemrieli kerZi gaxdes, roca mas waiyvans "aqtivTa yvlefis" sasaklaoze. erT mSvenier dRes, Cveulebriv erTi wlis Semdeg¾roca mas kapital-dabandebebi "gaasuqebs", SesaZloa guluxvad mowodebuli kreditebiT¾erTerTi kreditori, magram ara Tavdapirveli bankiri, moulodnelad moiTxovs valis dabrunebas. moxdeba kidev raRac-raRacebi. xbo-klienti aRmoCndeba gabankrotebis winaSe. misi Tavdapirveli "mfarveli" bankiri, romelmac mudmivad iyo dainteresebuli saqmiT, gamoisyidis aqtivebs sxva kreditorebisagan, erTi-or groSad aRdgeniTi Rirebulebis TiToeul dolarze da siamovnebiT miyidis mas am "xbos" ufro Zvirad. amiT is moigebs 50 an met procents. tipiur realur viTarebebSi, romelic sul ufro xSirad xdeba cxovrebaSi, gabankrotebuli aqtivebis gamosyidva xdeba pirvelsawyisi klientebis, saTanado bankebis meanabreTa da mravali sxva kreditoris gaZarcviT.

"masStabTa Sekvecis" am monetarul da sxva msgavs formebs, adgilobriv, erovul Tu msoflio ekonomikaSi, moaqvs sakmaod STambeWdavi mogeba. yovel SemTxvevaSi es ase gamoiyureba adgilebze, Tu Sedarebas gavakeTebT gonebaWvretiTi bazisis Rirebulebis mimarT, romelic am dros fizikurad aucileblad mcirdeba. magaliTad, aseTi Sedegi miiRweva, roca "dezertir saamqros" ("runaway shop") gadaisvrian iafi Sromis bazarze. amiT erTdroulad Zarcvaven bazarsac da nacionaluri ekonomikis bazissac, romlis zednaSenidan gaagdes es saamqro. ukve naxsenebi "gadasayreli obligaciebi" warmoadgens TaRliTobis igive saxeobas, rasac ganekuTvneba "aqtivTa yvlefa". igive exeba "derivatebs" (meorad fasian qaRaldebsderivative). londonisa da uol-stritis kerZo bankebi fuls deben iafi SromaSi ara warmoebidan mogebis miRebis mizniT; maTi operaciebis mogebis erTaderTi arsebiTi wyaroa ara produqcia, romelic miiReba warmoebiTi procesis, rogorc aseTis meSveobiT, aramed amis gareSe _ realuri ekonomikis iseTi berketebiT ZarcviT, rogoricaa maqinaciebi valutaze da daTmobebi fasebsa da gadasaxadebSi. mokled, es xorcieldeba "aqtivTa yvlefiT", sadac warmoeba gamoiyeneba Tavisebur berketad, mxolod.

"aqtivTa yvlefis" sxva formaa Sobadobis donis gaumarTlebeli Semcireba. ekonomikis SenarCuneba miRweul doneze, mTlianobaSi moiTxovs samuSao Zalis aRwarmoebas igive an ufro didi tempiT. amisaTvis saWiroa axalgazrdobis saTanado inteleqtualuri ganviTareba da janmrTelobis SenarCuneba. magaliTad, Sobadobis SenelebiT an mis mTlianad SeCerebiT SesaZlebelia mosaxleobis erT sulze Semosavlebis kleba da mWamelTa Semcireba, romlebic saWiroeben saTanado kvebas, raTa droebiT mivaRwioTsxva gziT miuRwevad, sabazro kalaTis Sevsebas, romelsac moixmaren adamianebi, gadarCenili mosaxleobis raodenobis spiraluri kolapsis pirobebSi. samuSao Zalis warmomadgenlebi im Sinameuneobebidan, romelTac ara yavT bavSvebi, iafia dasaqiraveblad, radgan TiToeul aseT momuSaveze naklebi adamiani modis, romelsac sxvisi zrunva da xarji sWirdeba; nax.8.

 

 

 

 

nax.8.

 

 

 

 

zustad aseve, 55 welze meti asakis adamianebis janmrTelobis dacvaze gamoyofili Tanxis SekveciT, SeiZleba hitleruli meTodiT gaiJlitos ufrosi Taobis umetesoba. es Seamcirebs mosaxleobis Semosavals erT sulze, romelic aucilebelia gadarCenilTa mxardasaWerad, cxovrebis arsebul pirobebSi. arsebiTia, rom mosaxleobis erT sulze Semosavlis amerikuli donis dRes arsebuli niSnulis SesanarCuneblad aucilebelia mosaxleobis struqtura aRweril iqnas demografiuli piramidiT, romlis fuZeSi arian bavSvebi, xolo cxovrebis modaluri[66] xangrZlivoba Seadgens 85 da met wels.

rogorc ki neomalTusianistma fanatikosebma miaRwies TavianT mizans¾Sobadobis donis Semcirebisa da postindustriuli utopiis SemoRebas, maTi momdevno ekonomukur moTxovnad unda qceuliyo orueliseuli[67] mizani¾adamianTa didi jgufebis ganadgureba, romlebmac miaRwies sapensio asaks. am sortisaa mTlianad "samaSvelo navis ekonomika" (life-boat economics), romelsac samarTlianad uwodes "hitleruli stilis ekonomikuri politika" (Hitler-style economic policies), vinaidan isic midis analogiur Sedegamde.

"aqtivTa yvlefis" xerxis gamoyeneba sazogadoebrivi ganaTlebis "privatizaciaSi", romelsac Tan axlavs gamaxvilebuli yuradReba "Sedegze-gamiznuli ganaTlebis"[68] programisadmi. es ukanaskneli mimarTulia sayovelTao sazogadoebrivi ganaTlebis kognitivisturi potencialis ganadgurebisaken da warmoadgens "aqtivTa yvlefis" formas, vinaidan momavalSi iwvevs hitlerul meTodebs, janmrTelobis dacvisa da mosaxleobis raodenobis zrdis kontrolis sferoSi. Tu swavlebis sistema ar uzrunvelyofs sayovelTao da aucilebeli ganaTlebas, Tu es sistema gansakuTrebul Zalisxmevas ar mimarTavs, vropuli civilizaciaSi tradiciulad aRiarebul klasikosTa Seswavlisaken da kognitivuri potencialis ganviTarebis geometriul midgomebze, maSin Sedegi iqneba sigiJis zRvramde miyvanili mosaxleoba, romelic gagvaxsenebda flagelantTa[69] brboebs XIV s. evropaSi, e.i. es iqneboda mosaxleoba, romelsac ar SeuZlia aiTvisos standartuli teqnologiuri gawafulobani, romelnic aucilebelia Tanamedrove soflis meurneobisaTvis da mrewvelobisaTvis.

"aqtivTa yvlefis" arcerTi forma ("dabali gadasaxadebi", "iafi Sroma"), saqme saqmeze rom midges, gamousadegaria danaxarjTa xangrZlivi kontrolisaTvis. TiToeuli maTgani, gamonaklisis gareSe, Semosavlis miRebis droebiTi xerxia mxolod, romelSic es masobrivi mkvleli¾"aqtivTa yvlefa", mimarTulia Cveni kolapsirebadi sazogadoebis mier dagrovili materialuri da kulturuli simdidris Zarcvisaken.

amdenad, miaxloebiT mainc rom ganvsazRvroT ekonomikuri vardnis xarisxi, 1963 wlis Semdeg (60-ian, 70-ian, 80-in wlebSi da 90-ian welTa dasawyisSi), pirvel rigSi aucilebelia ganxilul iqnas produqciis gamoSvebis doneTa realuri maCveneblebi, mosaxleobis 1 sulis, Sinameurneobis da kvadratuli kolometris mixedviT. Semdeg am maCveneblebs unda gamoakldes im moCvenebiT fizikuri produqtTa jami, romelTa miwera moxda "aqtivTa yvlefis" sxvadasxva xerxebiT.

damatebiTi mosazrebebi, romlebic Tan unda daerTos xolme statistikas, warmodgenilia Cems zemoT naxseneb saxelmZRvaneloSi (1884 wlis gamoSveba). maTTan erTad, Cven xelT gvaqvs TvalnaTeli konturebi gaubaTilebeli statistikuri mtkicebebisa, rom 1963 wlidan moyolebuli, wminda produqciis warmoebis mixedviT (erT sulze, Sinameurneobaze da kvadretul kilometrze gadaangariSebiT), msoflio ekonomika ecema. dacemis tempebi ki Tavis Tavs aCqarebda, rac yvelaze metad sagrZnobi gaxda bolo 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi[70].

 

 

 

 

Sinaarsisken

 

 

 

 

2. smiti, rikardo da marqsi: britaneTis imperializmis nulovani zrdis ekonomistebi

kerZo gamosvlebsa da publicistur nawerebSi, 1983-1985 wlebSi, mravaljer viwinaswarmetyvele "varSavis xelSekrulebis" kolapsi sadRac 1988 wlisaTvis, Tu moskovi uars ityvis TanamSromlobis im formaze, romelic maT SeTavaza prezidentma reiganma, Tavis pirvel gamosvlebSi, strategiuli TavdacviTi iniciativis (sTi) Sesaxeb, 1983 wlis martSi[71]. agreTve viZleodiT gafrTxilebas, publicizmis igive saSualebebiT, rom, Tu ZalaSi darCeba anglo-amerikuli politika, romelic tardeboda maSin da grZeldeba dResac, maSin dasavluri ekonomikuri sistemac aRmoCndeba sistemuri kolapsis erTerTi saxis winaSe, romelic gacilebiT uaresi iqneba, vidre romelime rigiTi cikluri depresia. 1988 wlis oqtombris ganmavlobaSi, aSS prezidentis winasaarCevno kompaniaSi, satelevizio gamosvlaSi, romelic gadaicemoda qveynis mTel teritoriaze, gafrTxilebas viZleodi iseT sagnebze, rogoric iyo saerTo balkanuri omis gaCaRebis sul ufro moaxloebuli safrTxe, zogierTi serbuli dajgufebebis mier, agreTve viwinaswarmetyvele germaniis gaerTianeba uaxloes droSi, rom sul ufro axloa "aRmosavleTis blokis kolapsis" jaWvuri reaqcia. yofil sabWoTa kavSirs kolapsi Tavs daatyda 1989 wels, xolo anglo-amerikuli sistema dRes[1994 w.] imyofeba ufskrulis piras.

orive sistemis kolapsi moZraobaSi moiyvana im politikurma ganwyoba-mizandasaxulobam, romelic globalur politikaSi Semovida, umTavresad prezident jon f. kenedis mkvlelobis Semde, 1963 wlis noemberSi. saerTo Tavisebureba, romelic axasiaTebs, planetaze dominirebul am or ekonomikur sistemaSi (anglo-amerikulSi da sabWoTaSi), bolo 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi mimdinare kolapss, mdgomareobs imaSi, rom orive SemTxvevaSi is umTavresad ganapiroba azrovnebis im saerTo defeqtebma, romlebic axdens politikis Camoyalibebas. Tavisi fesvebiT es defeqti aqsiomaturad midis britaneTis ost-induri kompaniis heiliburis skolaSi¾adam smitis46, ieremia benTamis[72], devid rikardos da sxvaTa skolaSi.

imisaTvis rom gavigoT, Tu rogor Sevida msoflio ekonomika kolapsSi, bolo 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi, aucilebelia vaRiaroT, rom is warmoSva, mxolod da mxolod, ekonomikis nulovani zrdis im ideebma, romlebic aqsiomebis saxiT Canergilia adam smitis da marqsis[73] azrovnebaSi, xolo sul bolo dros¾sistemur analizSi, romelic ekonomikaSi SemoRebul iqna 1938 wlidan, radikal-pozitivist jon fon neimanis[74] mier. agreTve, gavrcelebuli Sexedulebis sapirispirod unda iTqvas, rom ekonomisti karl marqsi iyo britanuli skolis mimdevari yvela Sesabamis sferoSi da ara mxolod imisa, rasac igi Riad acxadebda smit-rikardoseuli skolis ueWvel mecnierul Rirsebad. Zalze sayuradReboa is faqtic, rom faqtiurad, mTeli Tavisi zrdasruli sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi, konkretulad 1871 wlamde, marqsi warmoadgenda Zvirfas da morCil SenaZens lord palmerstonis[75] sagareo dazvervisa ori mTavari kontrolerisa ¾londoneli rezidentis juzepe maZinisa[76] da david erkhartisa[77]. es ukanaskneli iyo ekonomikaSi marqsis ganswavlis Sef-kontroleri, britaneTis muzeumidan.

am naSromis CarCoebSi Cven gvaiteresebs marqsze palmerstoniseuli kontrolis Zalze viwro aspeqti. imis miuxedavad rom ekonomikis sferoSi misi naSromebi Cveulebriv asocirebulia "damatebiT Rirebulebis" cnebasTan, formaluri argumentaciis misTvis damaxasiaTebeli xerxebiT Tu vimsjelebT, romelic Tan gasdevs misi "kapitalis" samive toms, maTematikurad marqsi warmoadgens "nulovani zrdis" ekonomists (zero-growth economist). am TvalsazrisiT, ar arsebobs araviTari aqsiomaturi gansxvaveba marqssa da imaT Soris, visac is mudam aRiarebda Tavis maswavleblad¾gansakuTrebiT es exeba smitsa da rikardos. xazs vusvamT, rom marqsis "kapitalis" formaluri mxare iolad SeiZleba CamovayaliboT, rogorc fon-neimaniseuli nulovani zrdis "sistemuri analizis" SedarebiT ufro daxvewili varianti¾e.i. sistema wrfivi utolobebisa. amaze miuTiTeben omis Semdgomi ekonomistebi kembrijis universitetidan, romlebic ikribebodnen qalbaton joan robinsonisa[78] da nikolas kaldoris[79] garSemo.

kaldoris sistemuri analizis kembrijis jgufma, romelic mWidrod TanamSromlobda lord sodi cukermanisa[80] da aleqsandr kingis[81] romis klubTan[82], cxadi zegavlena moaxdina sabWoTa politikur azrovnebaze politikuri ekonomikis sferoSi, 1970-ian wlebsa da 1980-iani wlebis sawyis periodSi. am zegavlenas, romelic xorcieldeboda iseTi arxebiT, rogoricaa "gamoyenebiTi sistemuri analizis saerTaSoris instituti (gsasi)" [83], lord cukermanisa da jermen gviSianisa[84] (avstria), ar gamouwvevia sabWoTa ekonomikis kolapsi. amis miuxedavad, Cvengan imaTTvis, vinc Tval-yurs vadevnebdiT am zegavlenas maSin, cxadi iyo rom gsasi da sxva arxebis meSveobiT, xorcieldeboda britanuli sistemuri analizis zegavlena moskovze, romelmac ueWvelad auxvia Tvalebi sabWoTa kavSiris mraval Sesabamis funqcioners, maSin ukve momwifebis procesSi myofi katastrofis namdvili mizezTa SemCnevaSi.[85]

kolapsis anglo-amerikuli mxareze pirdapir ikveTeba adam smitis gavlena. smitiseuli dogmis radikaluri versia, aqsiomaturad CarTulia politikur azrovnebaSi, romelic ukve male miiyvans anglo-amerikul finansur sistemas, sistemur kolapsamde.

axla, imisaTvis rom gavigoT cudi ekonomikuri Teoriisa da sistemuri analizis urTierTkavSiri, ganvixiloT memkvidreuli monacvleobis mixedviT, Semdegi ori urTierTdakavSirebuli aspeqti. upirveles yovlisa unda gairkves, ra saSualebebiT moxda, XVIII saukunidan moyolebuli, britaneTis ekonomikuri dogmis safuZvlebSi mdebare debulebaTa dafuZneba, dRevandel mTavrobaTa umravlesobis politikaSi da msoflios universitetebSi. meore, mkacrad unda gadavamowmoT aqsiomaturi urTierTkavSirebi, ideaTa garkveul kavSirebsa da am ideebis ekonomikur praqtikaze zemoqmedebas Soris. mxolod am or-erTiani Tvalsazrisidan, Tanamedrove sistemuri analizis kritikuli mniSvneloba imis CaTvliT, SeiZleba gagebul iqnas Tu rogor moaxdina smitis, rikardos da sxvaTa moZRvrebebis radikalurma variantebma, Cveni drois globaluri ekonomikuri kolapsi.

sakiTxis orive am aspeqtis yvelaze ufro kritikul ganmasxvavebel Strixs warmoadgens Semdegi faqti. ekonomikuri swavlebis formaluri mxare, romelic zegavlenas axdenda rogorc sabWoTa, aseve dasavlur politikaze, gamoyvanil-deducirebulia im doqtrinidan, romelic ubralod gamoricxavs nebismier ekonomikur politikas, Tu is araTavsebadia "nulovani zrdis" SedegTan.

jer mokled mimovixiloT aqsiomebi. Semdeg ki davadgenoT, Tu rogor iqca britaneTis ost-induri kompaniis heiliburiseuli skolis aramecnieruli aqsiomaturi aqsioma-daSvebebi, sayovelTaod aRiarebuli da miRebuli XX saukunis wamyvan akademiur wreebSi, mTel msoflioSi.

Sinaarsisken

2.1. aqsiomatikis mokle mimoxilva

dasawyisSi neba damrTeT Sevamowmo, sworad vugebT Tu ara erTmaneTs, roca viyenebT termins "aqsiomatika". yvelaze martivi formiT, termin "aqsiomis" praqtikul gansazRvrebad Cvenc vgulisxmobT igives, rasacc evkliduri geometriis klasikuri teqsti. cudia is rom Cvens droSi universitetTa uamravi kurs-damTavrebuli darCa jerovani geometriuli momzadebis gareSe. isini e.w. "axali maTematikis"(New Math48) saswavlo gegmaTa msxverplni gaxlavan, romelic damtkicda 30 wlis wineT[86]. xolo imaT, visac aqvs WeSmariti geometriuli codna, vTxovT sulgrZelad moiTminon, vidre ar avuxsniT am terminis Sinaarss imaT, visac is jer ar auTvisebia.

sworadaa naTqvami, rom klasikuri azriT "aqsioma" niSnavs debulebas, romlis WeSmaritoba aRiarebulia dasabuTeba-damtkicebis gareSe, e.i. is miiReba ara-mtkicebadi daSvebiT; misi nebismieri sapirispiro debuleba unda vaRiaroT mcdarad (imis miuxedavad, aris Tu ara aqsioma swori an mcdari, sinamdvileSi). magaliTad, evkliduri geometriis gagebiT, "wertili" aris umciresi moazrebadi xati grZnobiT aRqmaSi, xolo "swori xazi" {monakveTi} warmoudgeniaT rogorc umoklesi manZili or wertils Soris.

am da sxva aqsiomaTa miRebis Semdeg¾rogorc saSeni blokebisa geometriuli azrovnebis mocemuli saxesxvaobisaTvis¾ukve arcerTi sxva winadadeba (Teorema) ar SeiZleba iyos uTavsebadi nebismier am aqsiomasTan. ase rom, rogorc ki miviRebT aqsiomebisa da postulatebis garkveul nakrebs mocemuli formaluri sistemis fuZemdeblur varaudebad, maSin nebismieri gamonaTqvami (proposition), romlis generireba moxda sistemis SigniT, Tavsebadi iqneba yvela am aqsiomasTan, erTad da cal-calke; amas garda, yvela gamonaTqvami, romelic SeiZleba arsebobdes am sistemaSi, igulisxmeba Tavidanve mocemulad. formalur sistemaTa am princips¾maTematikis formalur sistemaTa CaTvliT¾zogjer uwodeben formaluri logikis "memkvidreobiT princips" (hereditary principle). mxedvelobaSia formaluri sistema, rogoricaa mocemuli magaliTad raselisa[87] da uaithedis wignSi "Principia Mathematica".

ramdenadac adam smitis46, karl marqsis73 da jon fon neimanis74 ekonomikur sistemaTa formalur aspeqtebs¾erTad da calcalke¾aqvs pretenzia rom sakuTari logikuri sistemebi gamoacxados Tanmimdevrul formalur warmonaqmnad, maSin es wesi¾e.w. "memkvidreobiTi principi", vrceldeba TiToel maTganze, calcalkec da erTadac. amas ki moedanze gamoyavs meore moTamaSe, yvela logikuri sistemis meore formaluri principi¾"tipebis principi" (principle of types). ganvixilavT ra, TiToeul am ekonomikur sistemas, rogorc saerTo tipis qvetips, SeiZleba martivad da uSualod davadginoT amJamad mimdinare msoflio ekonomikuri sistemis kolapsis mizezi.

Cveni miznebisaTvis sakmarisi iqneba "tipebis principis" Semdegi gansazRvreba.

mas Semdeg rac aRvniSneT, rom mocemuli Tanmimdevruli formaluri sistemis yvela arsebuli Tu SesaZlo Teorema aracxadad ukve mocemulia erTian "memkvidreobiT pricinpSi", am ukanasknelis CamoyalibebiT SeiZleba Seicvalos TeoremaTa es sia. rom aigos es debuleba (memkvidreobiTi principis formulireba), Cven unda warmovadginoT erTmaneTTan dakavSirebul aqsiomaTa simravle, dalagebuli rigSi Tu sxva wesiT, rom yvela Teorema, gamonaklisis gareSe, gamoyvanadi iyos maTgan.

amas mivyevarT mniSvnelovan fundamentur aRmoCenamde, romelic detalurad daamuSava georg kantorma[88]. am aRmoCenam gamoZaxili pova XX saukunis maTematikosis kurt giodelis[89] naSromSi. giodelma, aRadgina ra kantoriseuli damtkicebis[90] ZiriTadi Taviseburebani, aCvena rom safuZvels moklebulia ara marto bertran raselis yvelaze ufro fundamenturi maTematikuri aqsiomebi, aramed Tanamedrove sistemuri ekonomikuri analizis mamamTavaris ¾jon fon neimanis, aqsiomebic. nu SevudgebiT aq georg kantoris saxelTan dakavSirebul araTvlad mimdevrobaTa[91] da simravleTa simZlavreebis ganxilvas. midgomebi, romelic Seexeba smitis, marqsis da fon neimanis garCeva-analizs, reziumirebulia Semdeg debulebebSi.

dialogSi "parmenide"[92], platonma gaxsna Tavisi cnobili ontologiuri paradoqsi: cvalebadobis gamaerTianebeli koncepcia, romelic rogorc generirebis principi, Tavis TavSi Seicavs da amiT sazRvars udebs koleqciis yvela elements, Tavad ar SeiZleba iyos am koleqciis elementi. es axleburad gaaSuqa kantorma Tavisi cnobili damtkicebis meSveobiT, romelic man ganaxorciela aSkarad platonis SromaTa TvalsazrisTa mixedviT da romelic revoluciurad ganaviTara rogorc formalur, aseve ontologiur TaviseburebaTa mimarT, nebismieri SesaZlo maTematikuri azrovnebisaTvis. amdenad, Tu Cven vayalibebT "memkvidreobiT princips" nebismieri formaluri sistemisaTvis¾magaliTad, amJamad sayovelTaod miRebuli sauniversiteto maTematikisaTvis, romelic Tavis namdvili saxiT generirebis principia¾maSin es Camoyalibeba aRmoCndeba im formaluri sistemis gareT, romelsac (impliciturad) gansazRvravs generirebis principi. es faqti rCeba dRevandeli maTematikuri azrovnebis miRma. amis miuxedavad, es principi gasagebia da misawvdomi SemecnebisaTvis.

am viTarebas adasturebs TviT maTematikis istoria. maTematikis is saxeoba, romelic SeiZleba gamoyvanil iqnas evklidur geometriaSi warmodgenil aqsiomaTa da postulatTa sistemidan ewodeba "algebra" anu "algebrul sistema". esaa maTematikis is saxeoba, romelsac Cven vukavSirebT rene dekartisa da isaak niutonis saxelebs. 1440-1697 wlebis periodSi Seiqmna ufro maRali, ara-algebruli maTematika, romelsac momdevno xanaSi ganasaxierebdnen umTavresad gotfrid laibnici33 da iohan bernuli[93]. ufro maRali ara-algebruli maTematika cnobili gaxda, rogorc transcendentul funqciaTa sfero. evkliduri aqsiomebi, wertilisa da wrfis Sesaxeb, ukugdebul iqna da Seicvala izoperimetriuli anu wriuli qmedebis aqsiomebiT, romelic cnobilia, rogorc "universaluri umciresi qmedeba". ara-algebruli maTematikis upiratesobis dadgena algebruli formebis mimarT demonstrirebul iqna 1670-ian wlebSi ole riomeris[94] mier sinaTlis siCqaris gasaocrad zusti gazomviT da am gazomvis warmatebuli gamoyenebiT mimarT, qristian hiugensis[95], laibnicis da iohan bernulis mier.

laibnicma da misma megobrebma ukuagdes algebruli azrovnebis aqsiomebi, magram maT ar gadaugdiaT araferi, rac Rirebulia mecnierebisaTvis. yovelive faseuli, rac aris algebraSi SeiZleba gagebul iqnas ara-algebruli maTematikidan, magram es done ukve Tavisufalia algebruli azrovnebis dabneulobaTagan. aman aCvena rom ara-algebruli maTematika garegani saxiT SemosazRvravs algebras. magram, platonis dialog "parmenides" paradoqsis Tanaxmad, ara-algebruli maTematikis WeSmaritebani SeuZlebelia warmoiSvas formaluri algebris agebebiT. kantoris enaze, algebruli da ara-algebruli maTematikuri formalizmi warmoadgens "memkvidreobis principis" sxvadasxva saxeobebs, anu isini ori gansxvavebuli "tipia"; algebris yvela swori winadadeba ganekuTvneba ara-algebrul funqciaTa erTerT "qvetips". aseTive saxiT, kantorma aCvena mesame, ufro maRali tipis maTematikis arseboba, Tvlad mimdevrobaTa sazRvrebs miRma, romelic maTematikis ufro maRali tipia, vidre Tanamedrove saswavlo maTematikis (classroom mathematics) nebismieri kursi.

 

 

 

 

mTargmnelis CanarTi.

baCana bregvaZis Targmanebi:

timeosi1994 ("irmisa"); parmenide2002("nekeri"), saxelmwifo2003 ("nekeri"), "dro da maradisoba"2006 ("nekeri"), axali Targmanebi2006 ("nekeri"), adreuli dialogebi1997 ("nekeri")

 

 

 

 

aqsiomatur (transfinitur) tipTa cneba SeiZleba mivuyenoT problemas, romelsac vikvlevT. sistemebi, romlebic Seesabameba adam smitis, devid rikardos, karl marqsis da jon stiuart milis[96] politikur ekonomiaTa maTematikurad aRwerad viTarebebs, ganekuTvneba wrfivi sqemis kantoris tips[97], romelic Tavisi xasiaTiT entropiulia im azriT, ra azriTac esmoda ludvig bolcmans[98] entropia gazis sistemis meqanikur modelSi, an nebismier sxva analogiur sistemaSi. es sworia jon fon neimanis sistemuri analizisaTvisac.

TviT im faqts, rom bolcmanis modeli aqsiomaturad entropiulia, pirdapir mivyevarT Semdeg paradoqsamde. Tu mTlianad samyaro daemorCileboda entropiis universalur kanons, rogorc amas gulisxmobs bolcmanis meqanikuri modeli, maSin TviT bolcmani verasodes gaCndeboda amqveynad da ver Seqmnida Tavis Teorias. anu bolcmanis Teoria swori rom iyos, maSin arc bolcmani da arc misi Teoria verasodes iarsebebda.

bolcmanis namoqmedaris mecnier-damcveli, romelic ar daeTanxmeboda am paradoqsis ase warmoCenas, Cvens winaaRmdeg gamosvlisas igive argumentebs moiSveliebda, rasac Tavad bolcmani¾es ukanaskneli fiqrobda rom ara‑entropiuli movlenebi samyaroSi SeiZleba arsebobdes lokalurad, xolo es ukanaskneli mTlianobaSi entropiulia.

am sawinaaRmdego azris mokle uaryofaa Semdegi: bolcmanis amgvari dacva mTlianad damokidebulia "uaryofiTi entropiis" cnebis, negentropiis (negentropy=negative entropy) arakompe-tentur gagebaze, romelic Tavad bolcmans ekuTvnis. imisaTvis, rom bolcmani gaCndes, is Tavad unda iyos sicocxlis procesi, romelsac aqvs progresuli da efeqturi inteleqtualuri aRmoCenis unari. mTlianobaSi igi[bolcmani] formiT sicocxlis procesTa evoluciur movlenaTa analogiuria. is agreTve unda gavdes TviTgardaqmnis iseT araorganul formebs, rogoricaa generirebis principi Tu tipi, romelic warmodgenilia elementTa da izotopTa mendeleevis[99] perioduli cxrilis srulyofil variantSi. bolcmani, rogorc realurad arsebuli adamiani, Tavis TeoriaTa sapirispirod, Seesabameboda aseT evoluciur models. magram es evoluciuri "modelebi", Tavad bolcmanis CaTvliT, SeuZlebelia gamoisaxos, "uaryofiTi entropiis" wmindad meqanicisturi cnebiT, romelsac maTematikurad gansazRvravs bolcmanis Teorema.

gamomdinare aqedan, magaliTad norbert vineris[100] mtkiceba, TiTqos bolcmanis meqanicisturi modeli¾romelic sicocxlis procesTa modeli, wminda xrikia da meti araferi. amave dros, roca vineri werda Tavis "kibernetikas", arsebobda kargad Camoyalibebuli azri sistemis or tipis¾entropiulisa da araentropiulis gansxvavebulobis Sesaxeb. am gansxvavebis formaluri istoria iwyeba, wesier geometriul sxeulTa agebis unikaluri SesaZleblobis platoniseul gaazrebidan. dRevandel mecnierebaSi platonis argumentebi ganaviTares luka paColim[101] da leonardo vinCim; is gaxda mTavari ganmasxvavebeli Strixi iohan kepleris[102] naSromebisaTvis. platonis, leonardo da vinCis da kepleris naSromaTa nayofi, Tavis axal dafuZnebas poulobs laibnicis analysis situs-Si (viTareba/situaciis analizi), xolo ufro mogvianebiT gausisa[103] da sxvaTa mniSvnelovan naSromebSi am mimarTulebiT. me-20 saukunis dasawyisidan 1930-ian wlebis CaTvliT moxda mendeleevis perioduli sistemis srulyofam, atomuri gamosxivebis, birTvuli sinTezis da atomis gaxleCis sferoebSi Catarebuli kvlevebis meSveobiT. aman naTlad aCvena, Tu ra unda gvqondes mxedvelobaSi, roca empiriulad da maTematikurad gamovsaxavT Cvens valdebulebas davicvaT mkacri formaluri gansxvaveba sicocxlisa da entropiul procesebs Soris. swored amitomac iyo sityvebis bavSvuri TamaSi sicocxlis procesTa araentropiul gansakuTrebulobaTa mimarT "uaryofiTi entropiis" (negentropiis) cnebis, rogorc droSi Setrialebuli statistikuri entropiis, gamoyeneba. xolo, adamianur urTierTobaTa zogadi principis Seswavlis problemisa da sicocxlis procesTa mimarT bolcmanis statistikuri Teoremis gamoyeneba vineris mier, ubralod Tavxeduri sofistikaa da sicrue.

uaryofiTi entropiis cnebis sworad gagebis magaliTs iZleva fizikuri ekonomika. igi aseTia.

ZiriTad fizikur saqonelTa gaerTianebuli saerTo jamuri moxmareba infrastruqturul, samrewvelo da saojaxo sabazro kalaTaTa mier Seesabameba sidides, romelsac Tanamedrove praqtika uwodebs "sistemis energias" nax.9.

 

 

 

 

 

nax.9 (mTargn. damateba)

 

 

 

 

 

sasurvelia produqciis saerTo gamoSvebis "sistemis energiasTan" Sefardebisa zrda. es ki, roca is ukve gansxeulebulia samrewvelo procesSi, funqcionalurad[104] Seesabameba am sazogadoebis rogorc procesis "fardobiT Tavisufal energias":

 

 

 

 

 

nax.10. (mTargn. damateba)

 

 

 

 

 

erTobliobaSi ki am "Tavisufali energiis" Sefardeba sistemis energiasTan korelaciur kavSirSia am sazogadoebis Sromis nayofierebasTan (nax.11).

 

 

 

 

 

nax.11. (mTargn. damateba)

 

 

 

 

 

mivyveT amas kidev ramodenime nabijze.

es sidideebi ganxiluli iyo zogad WrilSi. magram maT ganixilaven funqcionaluradac104, mosaxleobis erT sulze, Sinameurneobaze, kvadratul kilometrze, agreTve mosaxleobis erT sulze kvadratul kolometrze gadaangariSebiT. warmatebis SemTxvevaSi, Sromis nayofirebis gazrda amcirebs samrewvelo ZalisxmevaTa per-kapita raodenobas, rac saWiroa sistemis energiis damakmayofilebel doneze SesanarCuneblad mosaxleobis erT sulze. magram aris sxva ori RirSesaniSnavi cvalebadoba, romlebic monawileobs imaSi, rac saWiroa Sromis nayofirebis am zrdis mxardasaWerad SefardebaSi: Tavisufali energia / sistemis energia (nax.9). sistemis energia, gamosaxuli fizikur sidideebSi (da ara samuSao drois xangrZlivobaSi) mosaxleobis erT sulze, unda izrdebodes. msgavsadve, yvela infrastruqturul da samrewvelo saqonelTa jamis Sefardeba saSinao moxmarebis saqonelTan ¾aseve unda izrdebodes. Tumca, aseve unda izrdebodes per-kapita samomxmareblo kalaTis absoluturi fizikuri Semcveloba. am winapirobaTa Sesruleba ganapirobebs mniSvnelobis im models[105], romelic unda qondes "negatiur entropias", Tu Cven am termins mivawerT sicocxlis procesebSi gansxvavebaTa warmomCeni antientropiuli maxasiaTeblis kongruetul ama Tu im xarisxs. es modeli warmoadgens "uaryofiTi entropiis" saZiebeli alternatiuli gansazRvrebis ilustracias. magram es asea maSin, roca es termini gulisxmobs Sesabamisobas nebismieri procesis erTimerisagan gansxvavebad maxasiaTebelTa Soris, Tuki es procesi uSvebs TviT bolcmanis arsebobas.

amave dros esaa modeli, romelsac unda Seesabamebodes ekonomikuri procesi. is mimarTuli unda iyos awarmoos mniSvnelovani moculoba imisa, romelsac marqsma uwoda "damatebiTi Rirebuleba". anu, ekonomikuri procesi mimarTuli unda iyos mTlianad kacobriobis mogebisaken. rac Seexeba adam smitis, devid rikardos, karl marqsis, jon stiuart milis da jon fon neimanis argumentTa sistemur formalizms, TiToeul maTgans axasiaTebs is aqsiomaturi cdomileba, romelsac uWiravs centraluri adgili "negatiuri entropiis" orive mcdar maTematikur gansazRvrebebSi (bolcmanis da vineris). TiToeuli am moRvaweTagan, gamonaklisis gareSe, nulovani zrdis maTematikuri modelis momxrea. TiToeuli am modelTagan nebismier ekonomikas aqsiomaturad miiyvans entropiul kolafsamde, Tuki is gamoyenebuli iqneba momqmedi politikis gzamkvlevad, xolo sazogadoeba aRmoCndeba imdenad ugono rom Seeguos mas.

 

 

 

 

 

Sinaarsisken

 

 

 

 

 

smiti fiziokratTa winaaRmdeg

bunebrivia, Cven axla ganwyobili varT gamovikvlioT nulovani zrdis aqsiomebi, romelnic iyo Canergili smitis, marqsis, fon-neimanis da sxvaTa SromebSi. pasuxi amaze Semoklebulad es ase gamoiyureba.

politikuri ekonomika rogorc mecniereba pirvelad SemoRebuli iyo gotfrid laibnicis mier, 1672-1716 wlebSi. jer fiziokratebi56, Semdeg marqsi, mili da fon neimani, yvelani iyvnen laibnicis moZRvrebis winaaRmdegni mecnierebaSi, kerZod politikuri ekonomikis sferoSi. rogorc ekonomistebi, smiti, marqsi, mili da fon neimani politikaSi laibnicis mowinaaRmdeg gamodiodnen, j. lokis45 poziciebidan. maTi mcdari ekonomikuri sistemebis saerTo aqsiomatur SexedulebaTa gagebis gasaRebia sazogadoebis lokis modeli.

fizikur ekonomikaSi laibnicis RirsSesaniSnav aRmoCenaTa Soris upirveles yovlisa iyo siTbur manqanaTa ideis damuSaveba, agreTve cneba teqnoloogiis Sesaxeb (technology). amaTgan pirveli dakavSirebulia mTeli sazogadoebis Sromis mwarmoebluri Zalis saSualo sididis zrdasTan, siTburi manqanebis gamoyenebiT. meore ki Tavis TavSi Seicavs Sromis mwarmoebluri Zalis im matebas, romelic moaqvs mecnieruli aRmoCenis eqsperimentaluri aparatis konstruqciul safuZvelTa gamoyenebas samuSao xelsawyoebSi, gamoSvebuli produqciis agebulebaSi da warmoebis meqanizaciaSi. amisi erTerTi Sedegia, mosaxleobis erT sulze Sromis fizikuri nayofierebis amaRleba, Tundac mosaxleobis mier siTburi energiis perkapita danaxarjebis gazrdis gareSe.

garkveuli aristokratiuli da finansur-oligarqiuli Zalebi gaerTiandnen da ganaxorcieles TavianTi rigebis mobilizacia, laibnicis fizikuri ekonomikis gavlenis amosaZirkvavad. maTgan yvelaze mniSvnelovani gaxldaT e.w. fiziokratebi, sadRac 1783 wlamde. mogvianebiT ki, moyolebuli 1763 wlidan da britaneTis politikuri Zlierebis zrdis periodSi, viliam petim, Selburnis meore grafma[106], "iSvila" adam smiti46, rogorc britanuli ost-induri kompaniis agenti. es kompania eweoda opiumis kontrabandas da monebiT vaWrobas. smitis daniSnuleba iyo frangi da Sveicarieli fiziokratTa naSromebis Seswavla, raTa Seqmniliyo gegma safrangeTis saxalxo meurneobis dasangrevad, aseve inglisurenovani CrdiloeT amerikis ekonomikis mosaSlelad. 1776 wels gamovida smitis wigni axelwodebiT "xalxTa simdidre" (The Wealth of Nations), britaneTis ost-induri kompaniis amoralur saqmianobaTa apologia. es iyo Selnburnis mier mxardaWerili, antiamerikuli traqtati. smitis es wigni, metwilad iyo ara marto plagiati¾safrangeTis wamyvani fiziokratebis naSromebisa, magaliTad tiurgosi[107] ¾ aramed damatebiT Seicavda doqtrinas "Tavisufali vaWrobis" Sesaxeb. is gamiznuli iyo safrangeTisa da inglisurenovani CrdiloeT amerikis ekonomikis mosaSlelad. smiti, rikardo, marqsi, mili, fon neimani da sxvebi¾yvela rogorc erTi¾warmoadgenen jon lokis politikuri ekonomikis aqsiomaturi modelis memkvidreebs, romelic SemoTavazebuli iyo adam smitis, britaneli ost-induri kompaniis am agentis mier.

qonebisken swrafvis (pursuit of properthy) lokis mosazrebisagan mkveTrad gansxvavdeba amerikis "deklaracia damoukideblobis Sesaxeb", efuZneba ra laibnicis koncepcias bednierebisken swrafvis (pursuit of happyness) Sesaxeb. aseve mkveTrad gansxvavebul fonze gaxda cnobili mTeli msofliosaTvis politekonomiis antibritanuli amerikuli sistema, romlis danergva

daiwyo prezident jorj voSingtonis dros. pirveli nabiji am mimarTulebiT iyo laibniciseuli suliskveTebis moxseneba "manufaqturaTa Sesaxeb" (On The Subject Of Manufactures), romelic aSS kongresze gaakeTa finansTa ministrma aleqsandr hamiltonma52. antibritanuli amerikuli sistemis dasawyisi iyo is damatebiTi politikuri gadawyvetilebebic, kreditisa da nacionaluri sabanko saqmis Sesaxeb, romelic Semdgom Suqdeboda imave hamiltonis moxsenebebSi amerikis kongresze: sazogadoebrivi kreditis Sesaxeb da nacionaluri bankis Sesaxeb. politikuri ekonomiis laibniciseuli sistema, romelic hamiltonma winaswarmetyvelurad aRwera rogorc momavali amerikuli ekonomikis safuZveli, sinamdvileSi marTla Seesabameboda araentropiul models, smitis, fon neimanis da norbert vineris entropiuli sqemeTa sapirispirod.

laibnicis moZRvrebis sawinaaRmdego yvela am ekonomikuri modelebidan, mxolod fiziokratebi ganixilavdnen mogebis WeSmaritebasTan axlos mdgom cnebas, mTeli sazogadoebisaTvis, da masac yvelaze ufro Semzaravi formiT. smitisaTvis, rikardosaTvis, marqsisaTvis, milisaTvis da fon neimanisaTvis mogeba aris raRac iseTi, romelic erTi pirovnebis mier meoris jibidanaa aRebuli ¾ magaliTad, vaWrobis mogeba, mevaxSeoba, an pirwavardnili spekulaciuri motyueba, dRevandeli "gadasayrel obligaciaTa" msgavsi. fon neimanis sityvebiT, maTTvis ekonomika, iseve rogorc dRevandeli malTusianelebisaTvis, mxolod giganturi kazinoa¾TamaSi monawileTi da nulovani jamiT. amis sawinaaRmdegod fiziokratebi amtkiceben, rom sazogadoebis simdidris wminda namati erT sulze warmoadgens "bunebis saCuqars" da ara adamianis mwarmoebluri Sromis Sedegs. sagulisxmoa, rom safrangeTis es soflis oligarqebi gaxldaT miwis dedis, RvTaeba-roskip geas[108] Tayvanismcemelnigeasi, delfis apolonuri kultidan[109]. fiziokratTa saTayvano roskipi gea warmoSobda simdidris yovelgvar namats. xolo Sroma iyo ubralod saqoneli, romelic "kortnida" geas mindvrebze amosul balaxs, gadaamuSavebda ra mas guluxv saCuqrad. miwis nakuwis sakuTrebaSi miRebiT miwaTmoqmedebi moipovebdnen erTaderT kanonier uflebas geas am saCuqarze, msgavsad im mamakacisa, romelmac meZav geas gadauxada fuli erTi saaTi siamovnebisaTvis.

rogorc cnobilia, am planetaze adamianis modgma cxovrobs aranakleb ori milioni wlisa. rogorc Cans, sadRac ukve maSin da mas Semdeg, Cvens modgmas gaaCnda mosaxleobis koncentraciis planetaruli potenciali, aranakleb 10 mln adamianisa. es udris im cocxal arsebaTa potencials, romlebic Zalze hgvanan drevandel babuinebs, Tumca adamianiviT nakleb Ronierni arian da Cxubis ufro naklebi unari aqvT. adamiani rom ubralod cxoveli iyos, aseT arsebaTa ricxvi dResac ki ver gadaaWarbebda aRniSnul dones, xolo satrapezo magidasTan moiqcednen babuinTa msgavsad. mosaxleobis koncentraciis potencialis cvlilebis damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba, romelmac dRemde mogviyvana, aris cxovrebis standartTa da Sromis nayofierebis erTdrouli zrda, rac iangariSeba mosaxleobis erTi sulze, aseve erT kvadratuli kilometrze gadaangariSebiT. mosaxleobis koncentraciis potencialis matebis am kantoriseul tips fesvebi aqvs gadgmuli adamianis im mentalur TvisebebSi, romlebic kacobriobas saSualebas aZlevs ganaxorcielos validuri aRmoCenebi mecnierebasa da natif xelovnebaSi, aRiqvas sxvaTa mier ganxocielebuli aRmoCenebi. aRmoCenaTa meSveobiT izrdeba adamianis per‑kapita Zalaufleba bunebaze.

nebismieri formaluri sistemis mimarT, rogoricaa magaliTad sadReisod sayovelTaod miRebuli saswavlo maTematika (classroom mathematics), aqsiomaturi aRmoCena gamovlindeba, rogorc "absolurturi maTematikuri wyvetiloba"[110]. am mimarTulebiT erTmaneTs aqsiomaturad unda Sedardes, cxovelisa da adamianis qceva.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

nax.12 (mTargmnelis damateba).

 

validur codnas samyaroze ayalibeben garkveuli wesiT. misi erTi nawili Sedgeba im debulebebisagan, romelnic gamosaxavs mimdinare epoqisaTvis ueWvel faqtebs. mas uwodeben hipoTezur nawils. is SeiZleba SevadaroT geometriis aqsiomebis erTobliobas, skolis saxelmZRvaneloSi. magram codna moicavs im debulebebsac romelTa WeSmariteba aRiarebul iqna hipoTezuri nawilis safuZvelze. geometriaSi maT Seesabameba damtkicebuli Teoremebi. ase struqturirebul codnas uwodeben deduqciur bades.

naxazze gamosaxulia sxvadasxva deduqciuri badeebi. qveda doneze mocemuli (1) badis Secvla moxda Semdegi garemoebiT. kacobrioba waayda faqts, romelsac axsna ara aqvs mocemul (1) badeSiesaa paradoqsi (ix. nax.12). am axsnaze "Tavis mtvrevisas" mkvlevaris goneba uSualod dainaxavs paradoqsis axsnas. esaa e.w. aRmoCena, ufro sworad revoluciur-aqsiomaturi aRmoCena (ix.naxazi). paradoqsis amxsneli es aRmoCena arasodes araa Teorema. misi mizeziT Zveli deduqciuri bade icvleba axliT, romelSic es aRmoCena an axali aqsiomaa (hipoTezaa), an dasabuTebuli debulebae.i. Teorema.

amis Semdeg yvelaferi msgavsadve meordeba da a.S. da a.S. (ix. naxazze (2) da (3) deduqciuri badeebi da isrebiT naCvenebi gza, dawyebuli (1) badidan].

laruSs swams qristeanizmis burj mamebisrom "adamiani RvTis sxivia bunebaSi". Tavis mxriv amatebs, rom adamianis unari akeTos aRmoCena bunebis kanonia, romelic am "RvTis xatebis" arsia.

yoveli validuri paradoqsis amxsneli axali hipoTezis formireba (aRmoCena) xdeba garkveuli principis velSi. es ukanasknelo aseve Sedegia gonebis uSualo Wvretisa, isic aRmoCenaa, hipoTezaa. mas ewodeba umaRlesi hipoTeza, wina hipoTezis mimarT (ix. nax).

rogorc wesi, zemdgom hipoTezaTa ganwesrigeba xdeba aseve garkveuli principis Suqze. platoni mas uwodebs hipoTezas umaRles hipoTezis Sesaxeb.

aRmoCena_hipoTezirebis es dialeqtika gadmocemuli aqvs platons dialogSi parmenide. laruSi am naSromSi amis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva adgilas wers, maT Soris sagngebod, adamianTa codnis eqvsi doneze saubrisasfiz.ek..

ix. ZiriTad teqstSi: "ekonomikuri mecniereba da hipoTeza".

(niko gunia)

 

 

 

 

 

Sinaarsisken

 

 

 

 

 

mecnierebis "obieqturoba" sinamdvileSi mis subieqturobaSia[111]

gadaWarbebuli iqneboda imisi mtkiceba rom nebismieri saxeobis cxovelTa qcevis nakrebi ganpirobebulia raime iseTiT, romelic mkafiod Seesabameba formaluri logikis iseT cnebas, rogoricaa "memkvidreobiTobis principi" (fiz.ek.). SeiZleba iTqvas, rom cxovelTa arcerT saxeobisaTvis araa damaxasiaTebeli Taobidan Taobas gadasces revoluciur-aqsiomaturi aRmoCenebi raime koncefciis saxiT. rogorc Cans, adamianisagan gansxvavebiT, cxovels ar SeuZlia sakuTari nebiT ganaxorcielos iseTi qceva, rogorsac adamianis saxeoba axorcielebs mecnieruli aRmoCenis dros. laparakia revoluciur-aqsiomaturi bunebis aRmoCenaze, romelic adamianebSi Tavisi gavrcelebis Sesabamisad iwvevs mosaxleobis koncentraciis potencialis revoluciur zrdas.

amasTanave, "cxovelis Wkua", arc ontologiurad da arc raime sxva saxiT, ar Seesabameba formalur logikas. cxovelebs aSkarad ar gaaCniaT inteleqtualuri qcevis raime iseTi principi, rac maT aseT qcevas daayenebda dRes sayovelTaod miRebuli saswavlo maTematikis (classroom mathematics) mimarT formalistTa warmodgenebidan sakmaod Sors. "cxovelis Wkua" da formaluri logika aSkarad axdens erTi saerTo Tvisebis manifestacias: orive ontologiurad gamoricxavs, adamianis gonebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel TviTmyofad SemoqmedebiT bunebas.

bolo ori milioni wlis ganmavlobaSi, adamianis cnobiereba warmoadgenda revoluciur-aqsiomatur aRmoCenaTa dagrovebis Tanmimdevrul da uwyvet process[112]. Tu ukan mivixedavT, drois ufro mokle manZilze, da ganvixilavT bolo aTaswleulTa evropul kulturas, maSin SegveZleba Tvali gavadevnoT praqtikulad yvelafers, rac CvenTvis cnobilia Tanamedrove mecnierebis safuZvelTa Sesaxeb, dawyebuli iseTi adreuli aRmoCenebidan geometriaSi, rogoricaa piTagoras Teorema, evdoqses amowurvis principi da platonis mier wesier mravalwaxnagaTa interpretacia. agreTve, Tumca naklebi sizustiT, magram sruli damajereblobiT SeiZleba Tvali gavadevnoT mecnierebis ganviTarebis zogierT Taviseburebas im epoqebSi, romlebic win uZRoda klasikur saberZneTs da mimdinareobda rogorc Zvel saberZneTSi aseve zogierT sxva regionebSi.

pirvel rigSi, saubaria mzis astronomiuli kalendarTa Seqmnaze, jer kidev 6000 wliT adre Cvens welTaRricxvamde. maT Cvenamde moaRwies centraluri aziis vedebis kulturidan, iseTive arxebiT, rogoricaa Zveli egvipte im epoqaSi, romelic win uswrebda piramidebis mSeneblobas, rogoricaa Cinuri kulturis uZvelesi fesvebi, romlebic rogorc Cans ganekuTvneba 15 aTasi wlis winandel epoqas. mTlianobaSi geometriaSi miRebuli maneriT SeiZleba davasabuToT, rom TiToeuli nabiji Tundac am Soreuli aRmoCenebisa, mxolod aqsiomuri wyvetiloba-naxtomia, masze ufro adre arsebuli ["winapari"] codnis formalurad gawyobis nebismieri mcdelobis mimarT. amasTanave viciT, yovel aseT aRmoCenas axasiaTebs "winapari" codnis Tanmimdevruli dalageba-ganwesrigeba, Tumca ara-aucileblad winaswar aRwerad-ganWvretadi gziT.

evropuli musikis racionaluri ganviTarebis msgavsi filologiuri da fiziologiuri aspeqtebi, Cven ukve gaxsnili gvaqvs sxva publikaciaSi[113]. magaliTad, Cven Tvali gavadevneT vokalizebul poezias mraval aTaswleulTa ganmavlobaSi. amisaTvis saWirod miviCnieT winaswar gangvexila is gzebi, romliTac moxda klasikuri polifoniis ganviTareba uaxloes epoqaSi, haidnis, mocartis da beTxovenis mier. yvelaferi es efuZneboda florenciuli belkantos ufro adrindel miRwevebs, xmis savarjiSod daweril nawarmoebebSi, agreTve, i.s. baxis Tanamedrove musikalur revolucias, kargad temperirebuli kontrapunqtis safuZvelze.

imisaTvis rom sworad gavigoT revoluciur-aqsiomaturi aRmoCenis es principi anu "platonuri hipoTezebi"¾Tu sxvanairad vityviT, Cven uari unda vTqvaT popularul miTze, e.w. "mecnieruli obieqturobis" Sesaxeb da avmaRldeT "mecnieruli subieqturobis" ufro maRal safexurze. am naSromSi ukve dadga wami amgvari saubris dasawyebad.

 

 

 

 

 

Sinaarsisken

 

 

 

 

 

mecniereba, rogorc klasikuri poezia

profesionalTa Soris dRes SedarebiT ufro gabatonebuli mosazrebis sawinaaRmdegod, agreTve sazogadoebrivi azris sapirispirod, vambob: WeSmaritad kacobrivi codnis SeZenis "saidumlo"¾vTqvaT ase, axleburad warmogvidgina georg kantorma, transfinitis Tavisi axleburi interpretaciiT. ukeTesia, Tu gadmocemis am etapze giCvenebT rom codnis es principi SeiZleba ganvsazRvroT triangulaciis wesiT, e.i. sami sayrdeni wertilis mixedviT: maTgan erTia kantoris principi transfinitur tipTa Sesaxeb, meorea kantoris mier Catarebuli pirdapiri Sedareba umaRlesi maTematikis am principisa, platonis axsna-ganmartebasTan SemoqmediTobisa da sikeTes Soris kavSiris Taobaze; mesamea kantoris Sromebisa da platonis meTodis Sedareba klasikuri tragediis Seqmnis Sinagan mxatvrul pricipebTan.

dRes cxadia, rom dagrovebuli kacobrivi codnis samive am waxnagSi, cal-calked da erTad aRebulSi, misi (codnis) formaluri warmodgenis nebismieri mcdelobis sapirispirod, is (codna) ar arsebobs am (formaluri) saxiT. piriqiT, codna mocemulia kantoris tipis97 principebSi. swored maTi meSveobiTaa dalagebul-ganwesrigebuli kacobriobis progresis Tanamimdevruli fazebi, gamonaklisis gareSe. modiT SevajamoT es midgoma, SesaZlebeli formebidan umartivesi gziT. formalizmis sapirispirod, romelic warmodgenilia, sayovelTaod miRebuli saswavlo maTematikis (classroom mathematics) kursebSi, codna efuZneba ara simboloebs, aramed Tanmimdevrul aqsiomatur-revoluciur aRmoCenebs[114]. Tqven ver ipoviT codnas sadme im formalur agebaTa Soris, romelic miRebulia elementTa am erTobliobidan. formalistTa Tvalsazrisis sapirispirod, codna Cndeba im "maTematikur wyvetilobaTa" mimdevrobaSi, romelTagan TiToeuli aRniSnavs Tu mianiSnebs im formalurad gauval sazRvars, romelic codnis dabal dones gamoyofs ufro maRlisagan.

es sazRvrebi¾es singularobebi, SeiZleba daZleuli da gavlil iqnas mxolod aRmoCenis ganxorcielebis principTa meSveobiT. am ukanasknelTa Soris platoni ganasxvavebs hipoTezas (aRmoCena), umaRles hipoTezas (Tanmimdevrul aRmoCenaTa principi anu aRmoCenis tipi) da umaRlesi hipoTezis Sesaxeb hipoTezas (revoluciur gaumjobesebaTa dalageba-ganwesrigeba, aRmoCenis meTodSi).

sapirispirod amisa, dRevandeli empirizmi45 warmoadgens formalur reduqcionizms. empirizmi cdilobs ipovos materiis warmosaxviTad umciresi da dauyofadi elementebi{"atomebi"}, raTa maTgan induqciis meTodiT gansazRvros samyaro rogorc erTiani mTeli, am yvelaze elementarul saSen blokebs Soris TiTqosda arsebuli, gamogonili, umartives TanafardobebaTa safuZvelze. zustad iseve, rogorc bertran raselma87 da alfred nord uaithedma[115], wignSi maTematikis safuZvlebi (Principia Mathematica), moaxdines reduqcionistebis meTodis ilustracia eqstremaluri formiT, radikaluri empiristebi anu pozitivistebi Cavardnen iseTive dabneulobaSi, rogoric dRes arsebobs farTed reklamirebul sisuleleSi ¾"araparametruli statistika". laparakia absurdul mcdelobaze¾ moiZebnos mizezobriobis Semcvleli mwir da wrfiv dro-sivrcis cariel ganfenilobaSi.

amis sapirispirod, platonis "parmenideSi"92 dadgenili ontologiuri principi, mecnierebs ubiZgebs eZion codna yovlis momcveli mTlianobisken zeaRsvlis gziT. magram es codna ar unda gavigoT rogorc elementi im simravlisa, romelsac is garegani saxiT sazRvars udebs da ganapirobebs. garkveuli azriT Cven unda vipovoT astrofizikaSi gzebi mikrofizikis saidumloebebisaken. SesaZloa, Cven sakmarisad Rrmad verc SeviWraT atomis birTvis samyaroSi, sanam ar ganvaxorcielebT kosmosis gamokvlevaSi masTan saTanado saxiT dakavSirebul samuSaos. Cven unda vipovoT kanonzomierebis safuZvlebi TviT astrofizikur masStabebSi, samyaros dalageba-ganwesrigebis principTa nawilebs Soris kavSirTa dasamyareblad.

droa xazi gavusvaT imas rom Tanamedrove sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebis fesvTagan yvelaze Zvelis asaki SesaZloa aRiricxebodes aTi-aTasobiT wlebSi. kerZod, isini SeiZleba vipovoT mzis grZel ciklTa astronomiul kalendarebSi centralur aziidan, saidanac istoriulad saTaves iRebs indoevropuli da Cinuri civilizaciebi. Tu dRevandelobisaken gadmoviweviT, mzis astronomiul kalendarTa Seqmnis mowmobebs vxvdebiT egviptis piramidebis agebis epoqidan karga xniT adre. am uZveles mowmobaTa Tanaxmad, jer kidev winaistoriul xanaSi, nebismieri kultura, romelsac ar qonda aTvisebuli kalendari, dafuZnebuli varsklavuri da mzis 26 aTas welze meti xangrZlivobis ciklTa swor koncefciebze, metad Raribi iyo kulturuli ganviTarebis mxriv.

sruliad aucilebelia codna veZeboT yovlis momcveli moazrebadi mTelis umaRles doneebze da ara mis umcires nawilebSi. magram TavisTavad es jer kidev araa sakmarisi moTxovna. Cven unda vixilavdeT dagrovil adamianur codnas sakuTari azrovnebis procesTa mudmivi kritikis meSveobiT, Tanac mecnieruli codnis warmoSobis, xelaxla aRorZinebis da gardaqmnis TiToeul stadiaze. am procesTa TiToeuli momdevno fazaze, Cven unda mivaRwioT gacnobierebuli gagebis umaRles dones, Cveni azrovnebis SedarebiT dabali doneTa gamoyenebiT, rogorc Semecnebis grZnobadi obieqtebisa. swored esaa platoniseuli sokrates meTodi, romelic mdgomareobs im xSirad dafarul aqsiomatur daSvebaTa gamovlenasa da axsna-gaSuqebaSi, romelTa mcdaroba ara-iSviaTad dadasturebula, magram mainc daufiqreblad uZevs safuZvlad tolerantul brma rwmenas TiTqos sayovelTaod aRiarebul-miRebuli Sexeduleba ueWvelad sworia.

kidev romeli meTodi SeiZleba iyos sasargeblo dRes? faqtiurad yvela mTavroba, aTwleulTa ganmavlobaSi Zarcvavda Cvens planetas, radgan adamianebi moTminebiT ekidebian ekonomikuri mecnierebis sayovelTaod miRebul akademiur gagebas. amave dros ukve karga xnis damtkicebulia, rom aseTi damokidebuleba sxva araferia, Tu ara sayovelTaod miRebuli xelSekruleba saxelmwifosTan masobriv TviTmkvlelobaze.

magram arc im faqtis aRiareba kmara, rom Cven unda miviswrafodeT im brma winaswar-daSvebaTa gacnobierebuli kontrolisaken, romlebic dRes marTavs uwignur filosofiis doqtorTa da kidev viRacaTa tvinsa da enas. imisaTvis, rom gavxadoT platonis meTodi da misi terminologia savsebiT gasagebi, Tavad platoni dasaSvebad CaTvlida sokrateseuli procesi warmodgenili yofiliyo tragediis saxiT, romelic gaTamaSdeboda Teatris mayurebelTa winaSe. bolos da bolos, misi dialogebi gana dawerili araa dramis saxiT? maTSic aqtiorebi TamaSoben piesas scenaze; mayureblebi {anu mkiTxvelebi} Tval-yurs adevneben TiToeul personaJis azrebs; dramaturgi zis loJaSi scenasa da darbazs zemoT da akvirdeba mayurebelTa azrebs, raTa da amiT ufro kargad dainaxos sakuTari gonebis nayofi.

unda iTqvas, Tu gavixsenebT platons, dante aligiers[116], leonardo da vinCis[117], rafael santis[118], iohan keplers da gotfrid laibnics, rom klasikuri xelovnebis safuZliani codnis gareSe ar arsebobs WeSmariti fizikuri mecniereba. Tu ar iqna ukugdebuli imanuil kantis[119] iracionaluri romantikuli esTetika, maSin mecnier-eqsperimentatoris mTeli ostatoba aRmoCndeba dionises[120] udabnos saSiS oazisSi, vagneris operidan, anu giJis, egzistencialuri mxecis, iracionalur romantikul gonebaSi. Tu mecnierebi uars ar ityvian kantze da fridrix karl savinis[121] barbarosul diqotomiaze ¾mecnierebis dayofaze sabunebismetyvelo (Naturwissenschaft) da humanitarul (Geistewissenschaft) mecnierebebad, Tu isini zizRiT ar ukuagdeben egzistencialur bodvas ¾"xelovneba xelovnebisaTvis", maSin mTlianad fizikur mecnierebas gauCndeba unayofobis tendencia, ganileva misi SemoqmediTobis Zala da darCeba mxolod usulgulo formalistika, yovelgvari SemoqmediTobis gareSe, e.i. mkvdari mecniereba da isic mxolod manamde, vidre bolos da bolos ar daiRupeba. "sanaxaoba aris gasrolili qamandis yulfi, romelmac unda gakoWos mefe". esqiles[122], migel de servantesis[123], uiliam Seqspiris[124], fridrix Sileris did klasikur tragediebSi, agreTve bunebis-metyvelebaSi Semoqmedebis dafarul saidumloebaTa kari Riaa maTTvis, vinc mzadaa masSi Sesasvlelad. SexedeT tragedias rogorc platonis dialogs da gaavleT paraleli am dialogis struqturasa da kantoris mier dalaSqrul-gamokvleul maRalmTian xeobas Soris, saidanac saTaves iRebs transfinitTa mdinare.

warmoidgineT vuyurebT piesas, romelic dadgmulia klasikuri platonuri tragediis saxiT, rogoricaa magaliTad de servantesis cnobili prozauli drama "don kixoti". tragediis Sesrulebis procesSi personaJebi Siga da Sig wamierad wyveten rolis Sesrulebas da mimarTaven darbazs monologebiT. am monologiT personaJi axdens mis mier auditoriis xedvis demonstracias. amis ukan imaleba garkveuli orazrovneba: msaxiobi mayurebels elaparakeba rogorc mis mier gaTamaSebuli personaJi Tu rolis Semsrulebeli? vidre mayurebeli uyurebs dramas, TviT drama "iyureba" mayureblis gonebaSi. es xdeba im momentebSi, roca monologis Semsrulebeli axdens dramis personaJis azrTa msvlelobis demonstracias.

avtoris mier warmodgenil dramis yvela damokidebulebaTa dedaarsi mdgomareobs {mayureblis} cnobierebisadmi Semdeg gaazrebul damokidebulebaSi: TiTqos es cnobierebaa grZnobadi aRqmis obieqti. mayurebeli Tvals adevnebs scenaze gamoyvanil gmirTa cnobierebas; mas amisken ubiZgeben iseTi saSualebebi, rogoricaa Seqspirisa da servantesis monologebi. dramaturgis yuradReba Tavmoyrilia im azrovnebiTi procesisken, romelic mimdinareobs mayureblis gonebaSi. did tragediebSi (esqiles "promeTeosi", Seqspiris da yvelaze ufro Sileris tragediebi) urTierTobis procesi, roca erTi cnobiereba meores eqceva rogorc obieqts, WeSmaritad sokrateseuli dialeqtikaa.

am azriT, yvela WeSmaritad adamianur-kacobrivi codna sokrateseulia. Cven codnasTan gvaqvs Sexeba maSin, rogorc ki avcildebiT cxovelTa dones da empirikosis45 sisuleleles: empirikosi aRiarebs mxolod erTi obieqts; esaa brma rwmena Tavisi SegrZnebis mimarT, romelic masSi gamoiwvia Tavisive reaqciam SegrZnebiTi gamocdilebis xat-obieqtebze. codna iwyeba maSin, roca CamovaSorebT Cvens yuradRebas grZnobiTi aRqmisagan da viwyebT im dafaruli aqsiomatur daSvebaTa gamovlenas, romelnic ganmsWvalavs da akontrolebs im xerxebs, romelTa meSveobiT vafasebT gansjisa da SexedulebaTa formirebis sakuTar process da aseTive procesebs sxva adamianebSi. codna iwyeba maSin, roca viwyebT manevrirebas im SedegTa Soris, romelic moyveba manamde dafarul da aRmoCenis Sedegad SesaZleblad qceul axal daSvebebs, axal aqsiomur myar Sexedulebebs, romlebic manamde dafaruli iyo Cveni TvalsawierisaTvis.

amdenad, didi drama, gansakuTrebiT didi klasikuri tragedia, Seqmnili iseTi avtorebis mier, rogorebic gaxlavan esqile, Seqspiri da Sileri, warmoadgens mecnierebis simkacrisagan gamomajansaRebel saocar stimuls da siamovnebis miRebis saukeTeso saSualebas. im formaluri maTematikisa ubralo aTviseba, romelsac aswavlian, aris "daswavla" da ara Semecneba. rodesac mTeli maTematikis cnobili Tu ucnobi aqsiomatur winaswar daSvebaTa gaazreba iwyeba rogorc gacnobierebuli procesebisaromelnic Tavis mxriv iqceva gacnobierebuli kritikis obieqtebad, swored maSin iwyeba is sasiamovno gancda, romlis saxelia WeSmariti codnis Zieba.

amosaval daSvebaTa es dramatuli sokrateseuli kritika, mxolod ubralo uaryofa rodia. am momentis saTanado ilustracias warmoadgens imis aRiareba, rom kantoris aRmoCenebi asaxavs amowurvis im meTods, romelsac vxvdebiT magaliTad platonisa da arqimedes SromebSi. ontologiuri paradoqsis gadawyvetis principi, ganxorcielebuli platonis "parmenideSi", aseve Tanmimdevruli mimarTva misadmi kantorisa da kurt giodelis mier, warmoadgens im xerxis gagebis gasaRebs, romlis meSveobiT aRwevs mizans amowurvis meTodi. mokled, mxedvelobaSia Semdegi.

ganvixiloT ganaTleba, civilizaciis CvenTvis cnobili istoriis bolo 2500 wlis periodis cotaTi meti xnis ganmavlobaSi. garegnulad, bavSvTa namdvili ganaTleba, e.i. codnis miReba (dRevandeli tyepa-jikaobis Tu bihevioristuli swavlebis nacvlad) iwyeba TiTqmis siymawvilis asakidan da Seicavs klasikuri geometriis da imavdroulad klasikuri berZnuli kulturis Seswavlas, romelic upirveles yovlisa iwyeba platonis dialogebisadmi mimarTviT. gonebis damaClungebul empirikosTagan gansxvavebiT, rogorebic gaxlavan piotro pomponaci[125], frensis bekoni, jon loki, devid iumi da maTi msgavsni, platoni moswavleebs exmareba daZlion SegrZnebiTi gamocdilebisadmi, rogorc aseTisadmi, brmad mindobis sisulele. Tu Tvals gadavavlebT klasikur saberZneTs platonis TvaliT SeiZleba davinaxoT, rom Semecneba iwyeba SegrZnebiTi gamocdilebis brmad ganWvretis rwmenaze amaRlebidan. es iZleva saSualebas Semecnebis mdgomareoba ganvixiloT misi mimarTebiT SegrZnebiTi gamocdilebis Sesaxeb gansjasTan (ix. CanarTi).

 

 

 

 

 

mTargmnelis CanarTi:

 

nawyveti l.'laruSis statiidan Believing Is Not Necessarily Knowing (rwmena yovelTvis rodia codna),

January 17, 2003, EIR.

aSS saganmanaTleblo politikis sul ufro mzardi katastroful CavardnaTa fesvebi bolo 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi, SeiZleba Sejamdes Semdeg xuTpunqtian sabraldebulo daskvnaSi:

(1*) SegrZnebiTi aRqma yovelTvis rodia codna;

(2*) rac gviswavlia yvelaferi araa codna;

(3*) sayovelTaod miRebuli Sexeduleba, akademiuri iqneba igi Tu sxva, araa codna;

(4*) dRevandeli maswavlebloba araa momarTuli moswavleTa imgvari ganaTlebisaken, romelic Seefereba adamians, garkveuli azriT;

(5*) radikalur reduqcionistTa "informaciis Teoriis" saxeliT cnobili axireba, romelic dakavSirebulia bertran raselis gulmxurvale mimdevrebis¾norbert vineris da jon fon neimanis saxelebTan, mudam iyo TvalTmaqcoba. amdenad, ganaTlebis meTodi, romelic morgebulia "informaciis Teorias", rogoricaa magaliTad, e.w. "axali maTematika" (niu maT), aseve warmoadgens TvalTmaqcobas.

am nawyvets Tan axlavs avtoris Semdegi sqolio:

1960-iani wlebis bolodan moyolebuli, mTeli 1970-iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi, amerikis saganmanaTleblo politikaze gamanadgarebel gavlenas axdenda "fordis fondis" direqtori mak-georg bandi (McGeorge Bundy, 1919-96). es gavlena SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc gagrZeleba aseTive efeqtisa, romelic gamoiwvia britaneli doqtoris, aleqsander kingis (Alexander King81) moxsenebam, dasavleT evropaSi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb, romelic man gaakeTa parizSi 1963 wels, "ekonomikuri da samrewvelo ganviTarebis biuroze" (OEIK¾Office of Economic and Industrial Development). am moxsenebis damRupvel Sedegze metyvelebs "brandtis gardaqmnebi" germaniaSi. es kingi, lord sodi cukermanTan (Zuckermann) erTad iyo romis neo-malTusianuri klubis damaarsebeli. amas garda, igive kingi, igive cukermanTan, xsenebul mak-georg bandisTan da sxvebTan erTad, monawileobda "gamoyenebiTi sistemuri analizis saerTaSoris institutSi(gsasi)", romelic mdebareobda qalaq laqsenbergSi (avstria). es instituti warmoadgenda dafarul sainformacio arxs, kembrijis universitetis lord kaldoris yaidis sistemuri analizis jgufsa da moskovel malTusianistebs Soris {ix. aq gv.33_n.g.}. unda gavigoT rom atlantis gaRma-gamoRma, agreTve britaneTis yofili premier-ministr uinxton CerCilis "rkinis fardis" orive mxares, erTdroulad mimdinare moraluri TviTganadgurebis mizezia korufcia.

ganaTlebis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb lindon laruSis Sexedulebebi gadmocemulia mis bolodroindel statiaSi The Present Dark Age In Education (Savbneli xana Tanamedrove ganaTlebaSi): EIR, Nov.11, 2005 (n.g.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

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gansjis meTodi yvelaze ufro tipiurad ganzogadoebulia evdoqses[126] zRvarTa principis meSveobiT: yoveli varaudi unda miviyvanoT Tavis sazRvrebTan {"ukiduresobebTan"}, raTa vipovoT is xerxebi, romelTa meSveobiT, cnobierebaSi CaerTveba is ontologiuri paradoqsebi, romlebzec uTiTebs platoni Tavis "parmenideSi". ase iqceva cnobierebis ufro maRali mdgomareoba (vidre empirikosebTan), dakavSirebuli platonur hipoTezasTan, Semecnebis subieqtad. hipoTezis gaazrebis procesis Cveneuli, rogorc kantoris tipis gageba warmoadgens umaRlesi hipoTezis gacnobierebas da a.S. amdenad, bunebis-metyvelebaSi mecnieruli aRmoCenis saidumloebani gansaxierebulia did dramatul tragediebSi.

sazRvari, romelic warmoaCens revoluciur-aqsiomaturi aRmoCenis hipoTezas, yovelTvis iseTia rogoric Camoayaliba platonma "parmenideSi". swored aseTi sazRvris magaliTi gviCvena nikolas kuzanelma[127], roca gadawyvita arqimedes mier Camoyalibebuli paradoqsaluri amocana wris kvadraturis Sesaxeb. gadavalT ra gare zRvarze, wreSi Caxazul da Semoxazul wesier mravalkuTxedTa gverdebis ricxvis gadidebis procesSi, SeiZleba vaCvenoT rom p ricxvis miaxloebiTi gamoTvlis am procesSi, verasodes ver mivalT mravalkuTxedis da wrewiris perimetrTa kongruetulobamde. am or geometriul figuras aqvs saxeobiTi gansxvaveba. wriuli moZraobis principi warmoSobs ufro maRal saxeobas, romelic garegani saxiT ganmijnavs mravalkuTxedis agebis process.

kuzanelis aRmoCenaSi (daaxl. ax. w. 1440 w.) Cven vpoulobT, umciresi qmedebis principis ara-algebruli formis aqsiomatur Canasaxs. esaa principi, romlis demonstrireba moaxdines laibnicma da iohan bernulim. zustad aseve, pentagramma mirificum[128], gamoyvanili karl gausis mier, kepleris mier gamoyenebuli sferos Sida zedapiris wesier da naxevradwesier dayofis principTa Seswavlis procesSi, iyo axali garRveva oqros kveTis[129] bunebaSi, platonur sxeulTa konteqstSi. amas ara aqvs araferi saerTo galileis[130] dinamikis "koeficientebTan", aramed warmoadgens Tavis zRvarze reducirebadi geometriuli procesis garegani saxiT "zRvardebas" ("dasazRvrebas").

kuzanelis aRmoCena wrewirisa da wriuli qmedebis sruli gansxvavebis Sesaxeb[131], anu Tanamedrove transcendentur funqciaTa Canasaxis migneba, warmoadgens hipoTezis principis gamoyenebis damajerebel magaliTs. modiT am aRmoCenas SevxedoT im warmomqneli principis tipis TvalsazrisiT, romelsac is ganekuTvneba. es mogvcems saSualebas SeviqmnaT naTeli warmodgena platonis umaRlesi hipoTezis Sesaxeb. rogorc ki daviwyebT kantoris naSromTa Seqmnis winapirobebSi Cawvdomas klasikuri tragikuli dramaturgiis poziciidan, rac SesaZlebeli xdeba gausis, leJen dirixles, bernhard rimanis da karl vaierStrasis mier paradoqsTa adreuli interpretaciebis meSveobiT, maSin studentis cnobiereba amaRldeba gulubryvilo Tvlad procesTa qimerebis zemoT, xolo umaRlesi hipoTezis hipoTezirebis odesRac damafrTxobeli xati miiRebs xelSesaxeb saxes.

kantoris Sromebi gamosaxavs mis sakuTar gamocdilebas aseT aRmoCenaTa ganxorcielebaSi. ufro gamaognebel STabeWdilebas Cvenze axdens filonis[132] Sroma "qmnadobis Sesaxeb" (On Creation), pirvelive wakiTxvidanve, vidre yvela es ganazrebani hipoTezis Sesaxeb mecnierul aRmoCenebSi. igive gvelodeba qristian avtorTa erTmaneTs gadajaWvul cnebaTa¾imago Dei (RvTis xati) da capax Dei (yovlis-mpyrob-SemZle RmerTi) gacnobisas. platonur konceptualur "SemoqmediTobasa" da "sikeTes" Soris sxvaobis aRiareba, rogorc daJinebiT ambobs kantori, Seesabameba mis sakuTar Sexedulebas, "transfinitsa" da "absoluts" Soris gansxvavebis Sesaxeb. axla ganvixiloT imago Dei da capax Dei-s mniSvneloba ise, rogorc es Cadebulia calkeuli pirovnebis saxeobiT bunebaSi, romelsac dabadebis [133] Sesabamisad ¾1:25‑28, kacobrioba am droiT samyaroSi ayavs absoluturad maRla nebismieri sxva arsebaTa mimarT.

Cven SegviZlia martiv manqanaTa meSveobiT movaxinoT adamianis unarTa modelireba, magaliTad aristoteles da bertran raselis87 formaluri logikis aslireba, romlebic agebulia ise rom Tavi gaarTvas iseT ontologiurad trivialur sagnebs, rogoricaa erTad ganxiluli wrfivi utolobebi. sacodavi aristotele, sacodavi kanti, sacodavi hegeli[134] da sacodavi raseli! ar SeiZleba sinanuliT ar davfiqrdeT imaze, xom ar aRmoCndebian es adamianebi dantes jojoxeTSi samudamod[135], sadac maTi satanjveli sasjeli iqneboda aseve sacodavi jon fon neimanis74 erTerTi manqanis "praqtikuli gonebis" mosawyen wesTa mudmivi dazepireba! danaSauli, risTvisac aseTi sasjeli Sesaferisi SeiZleba iyos Semdegia. maTi cxovrebis satanuri Sroma mieZRvna imas, rom maTive motyuebulebs SeuSales xeli exilaT silamaze imisa iyo adamiani.

erTmaneTTan mWidrod dakavSirebul imago-Dei da capax-Dei TvisebaTa-RirsebaTa forma unikalurad asaxulia formalurze zemdgom SemoqmediT azrovnebaSi, romelic uSualod ilustrirebulia aqsiomatur-revoluciuri aRmoCenebiT sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebaSi da aseTive aRmoCenebiT natifi xelovnebis klasikur dargebSi. Tu sakuTari cnobierebas, sakuTari mecnierul da saxelovnebo azrovnebiT gavwvrTniT sakmarisad maRal doneze, maSin im gadasaxedidan Cven SevZlebT davinaxoT hipoTeza evdoqses paradoqsalur zRvarSi, Tundac negatiurad, romelic tipiurad aRwerilia platonis mier "parmenideSi"92, agreTve kuzanelis127 naSromSi "naswavli umecrebis Sesaxeb" (De docta ignorantia) da "wris kvadraturaSi"(Circuli Quadratura). xelovnebis nawarmoebs, romelic warmoCenilia rogorc WeSmariti hipoTeza, Cven vaRiarebT formalur wyvetilobad, Tanabrad imisa rogorc es axasiaTebs nebismieri revoluciur-aqsiomaturi aRmoCenas.

samecniero progresis amgvari interpretaciis dros, roca igi ganixileba klasikuri tragediis sagnad, laibnicis konfliqti fiziokratebTan56 da britanel fritrederebTan Tavad gvevlineba msgavs tragediad.

 

 

 

 

 

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empirizmis tragedia

mTavari falSi Tu sicrue, romelsac efuZneba fiziokratebis56¾adam smitis, ieremia benTamis, karl marqsis, jon stiuart milis da jon fon neimanis moZRvrebebi, warmoadgens igive tyuils kacobriobis Sesaxeb, ris gamoc dantes jojoxeTSi mudmivad SeiZleba daitanjon aristotele, kanti, hegeli da raseli. am adamianTa SexedulebaTa sawinaaRmdegod, swored mosaxleobis koncentraciis potencialis istoriuli zrdaa is, rac kacobriobas gamoyofs da aRamaRlebs sxva arsebaTa zemoT, droiT maradisobaSi, da calkeul individs warmoaCens rogorc Semoqmedis arasrul xats. es xdeba, efeqtur SemoqmedebiT ZalTa revoluciur-aqsiomaturi formis aSkara Zlevamosilebis wyalobiT: laTinurad am Zalebs ewodeba imago Dei (xati RvTisa) da capax Dei (yovlisSemZleoba RvTisa).

erTerTi sakiTxi, romelic ganixileba am naSromSi, aris geas108 warmarTuli kulti da misi Tayvanismcemelebi¾fiziokratebi, romelnic uaryofen adamianis SemoqmediT Zalebs. araa gasakviri rom isini ZiriTadad gamovidnen feodaluri monaTmflobelobisa da finansuri mevaxSeebis politikuri kavSiridan, romelic gavda monobis damcvel instituts CrdiloeT amerikaSi. am beberi roskipis, babilonelTa miwis dedis, geas TavanismcemelTa azriT yvelaze uxeSi danaSauli iqneboda, Tu vinme Semoqmedis bunebas miawerda glexs an monas. am ukanasknelTa mimarT maT guli stkivaT ara umetes, SesaZloa naklebadac, vidre im pirutyvze, romelsac didi mondomebiT kvebaven dasaklavad.

adam smitisaTvis "samuSaos damkveTni" iyvnen me-18 saukunis bolo wlebis liberalebi da radikaluri empirikosebi45. amaSia misi fiziokratebisagan gansxvavebis arsi da wyaro.

fiziokratebi icavdnen TavianTi feodaluri oligarqizmis tradiciulad xarb bukolikur[136] formebs, TavianT mekavSireebTan erTad mevaxSe-bankirTa wridan, roca isini TavianT socialur Cvevebs upirispirebdnen "oqros renesansis" socialur, ekonomikur da politikur gardaqmnaTa, ase vTqvaT, "Semosevas". laparakia oqros renesansze, romelic arsebobda me-15 saukunis florenciaSi.

radikalurma empirikosebma, grafma Selburnma106 da ieremia benTamma72, fiziokratebTan TavianTi konfliqtis arsi maSin gamoavlines, roca isini londonidan marTavdnen TavianT orleanel agentTarobespieris, dantonis da maratis iakobinur terors, mimarTuls safrangeTis winaaRmdeg. britanuli ost-induri kompanias amofarebuli radikalebi gamovidnen fiziokratebis mekavSired, florenciis 1438-45 wlebis saeklesio krebis[137] memkvidreobis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. magram maT rodi surdaT, TavianTi materialuri utilitarizmi, TavianTi neo-romanuli mgznebare wyurvili msoflio imperiisaken, daeqvemdebare-binaT socialur CveulebaTa Semakavebeli Zalebis arcerTi formisadmi, Tundac fiziokratTa Cveulebebisadmi, miuxedavad imisa rom drodadro mekavSireebic ki iyvnen. mogvianebiT, 1848-49 wlebis revoluciis dros, aseve savsebiT umadurad iqceoda lord palmerstonis75 "axalgazrda evropa", britaneTis erTgul mekavSireTa, meternixis[138], ruseTis mefisa da safrangeTis monarqiis mimarT.

formalurad SeiZleba aRvniSnoT ori arsebiTi gansxvaveba empirikosebsa da fiziokratebis ukeTes warmomadgenelTa Soris¾ medvelobaSi gaxlavan kene[139] da tiurgo107. upirveles yovlisa, fiziokratTa ukeTes warmomadgenlebs sakmarisad kargad esmodaT warmoebiTi procesis struqtura (Tumca ar esmodaT funqcionaluri maxasiaTeblebi), maSin roca empirikosebs¾dawyebuli smitidan, Semdeg jon stiuart miliTa96 da jevonsiT[140] gagrZelebuli¾arasodes esmodaT igi. magram es esmoda kenes da mis winaSe amaSi valSia marqsi. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom marqsi amisi codniT sjobs Tavis heiliburel winamoerbedebs, iseve rogorc Tanamedrove monetaristebs[141]. meore SeniSvna¾ wamyvan fiziokratebs sjerodaT, rom arsebobs wminda socialuri mogeba, erTobliobaSi, mTeli sazogadoebisaTvis. Tumca empirikosebs amisi ar sjeraT. marTalia, am mimarTulebiT marqsi, rogorc ekonomisti sjobia smitsa da david rikardos, magram rac Seexeba maTematikas, is warmoadgens benTamisa da rikardos erTgul mimdevars. axla ki mzad varT mTeli yuradReba mivmarToT empirikosTa ekonomikuri mecnierebis formaluri mxarisaken.

smitis, benTamis, Tomas malTusis, marqsis da milis ekonomikur dogmaTa gagebis gasaRebia jon lokis45 doqtrina sazogadoebis Sesaxeb. lokis sistemaSi, sazogadoeba warmoidgineba diskretul erTeulTa didi raodenobis ubralo grovad¾neo‑aristoteluri nawilakTa grovad. es gaxlavan adamianebi, monawile polimorful[142] areul-dareulobaSi, romelic arsebiTad SemdegiT xasiaTdeba. TiToeuli am nawilakis qceva motivirebulia sxva arafriT, garda sami pirvelxarisxovani impulsisa: darCes cocxali (sicocxle), eswrafodes SegrZnebiT siamovnebas (Tavisufleba) da daikmayofilos sixarbe (sakuTreba). lokisaTvis ar arsebobs araviTari "Tandayolili ideebi". Tu medvelobaSi ar miviRebT sixarbis dakmayofilebis cocxal, uaRresad amoralur enTuziazms, sxvamxriv individi dabadebulia rogorc "sufTa furceli" (tabula rasa). lokis45 mier "adamianis bunebis" aseTi axsna, aqsiomatur safuZvlad udevs benTamis "hedonistur aRricxvas", xolo Semdgom ¾fon neimanis radika-pozitivistur "sistemuri analizis" doqtrinas, da ara marto amaT.

TiToeuli am formaluri sistemebidan, romlebic warmoadgines smitma, marqsma da sxvebma, cal-calke da erTad, saWiroebs maTematikuri meTodebidan arafers ufro rTuls, vidre wrfivi utolobebia, ganxilulni erTad. marqsis meTodebi ver iqneboda ise uxeSi, rogorc fon neimaniseuli, magram mis "kapitalSi" araferia ufro arsebiTi, romelic araa garemoculi am saerTo sistemiT. am mizeziT, am politekonomistTa (smitidan da marqsidan fon neimanamde da mis Tayvanismcememelamde) ideebis maTematikuri forma warmoSobs nulovani zrdis models ("zero-growth system"). SesaZloa, yvelaferi, razec Cven axla visaubreT¾marqsis da jon fon neimanis msgavseba-gansxvavebis Sesaxeb, marTla iyo kembrijeli qalbatonis joan robinsonis78 da maton nikolas kaldoris79 gonebaSi, roca maT erTmaneTSi Seuries cota marqsi, cota jon meinard keinsi[143] da cota TviT fon neimani, raTa sakuTari xelebiT moemzadebinaT sistemuri analizis kembrijuli kerZi, moskovSi saeqsportod, "gamoyenebiTi sistemuri analizis saerTaSoriso institutis (gsasi83)" meSveobiT.

am kavSirTa arsi Semdegia: sistemas, romelic SeiZleba warmodgenil iqnas erTad ganxilul wrfiv utolobaTa saxiT[144], SeuZlia aRweros mxolod nulovani zrdis procesi, ufro zustad, entropiul procesi. maSasadame, mocemuli fizikuri sistemis regulirebisken mimarTuli warmatebuli Zalisxmevanic ki, romlebic am maTematikuri sistemis normativTa Sesabamisad xorcieldeba, Tavad fizikur process Tavs moaxvevs gadagvarebis entropiul formas. unda davumatoT, rom procesi, romelic sinamdvileSi araentropulia, magram moqceulia aseTi sistemis kontrols qveS, an Tavad gadagvardeba amisgan an Tavidanve moicilebs mas, sruli dangrevis Sedegad[145].

am pirobebSi, politikis Camoyalibebis sistema, romelic maTematikurad warmoadgens entropiul process, Tuki gamoyenebuli iqneba sazogadoebis gasakontoleblad, nebismier sazogadoebas romelsac is akontrolebs, miiyvans entropiul ngrevamde. esaa amJamad mimdinare yofil sabWoTa da anglo-amerikul sistemaTa spiraluri kolapsis gasaRebi.

 

 

 

 

 

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3. negentropiuli procesebi

umniSvnelovanesi gakveTili, romelic mTlianobaSi unda gamoitanos yovelma wignierma adamianma dRes mimdinare msoflio ekonomikis rRvevis procesidan, mdgomareobs imaSi rom yovelTvis, roca fizikur process, rogoricaa ekonomikuri, marTavs ideebi, romelTa maTematikuri warmodgena entropiulia, maSin Sedegi iqneba nebismieri sistemis moSla, romelic regulirdeba aseTi xerxiT. amgvarad, Cven vaCveneT rom msoflio ekonomikis sul ufro da ufro meti nawilisaTvis, daJinebulad, sul ufro gaZlierebulad da mizanSewinilad Tavs moxveva jon lokis, adam smitis da sxvaTa ideebisa, warmoadgens im gaWirvebisa da qaosisa mTavar mizezs, romelic vrceldeba SeerTebul Statebsa da mTel msoflioSi, meoce saukunis am bolo meoTxedis ganmavlobaSi.

amitom, damatebiT naCvenebia Semdegi. adam smitisa, karl marqsisa, jon fon neimanis da sxvaTa politikuri ekonomiis iseTi formiT warmodgenis yovelgvar mcdelobas, romelic mosaxerxebeli iqneboda ekonomikur procesTa samarTavad (magaliTad, rogoricaa aRricxvis meTodebi), aucileblad mivyevarT nebismier ekonomikur procesis entropiuli moSlis dawyebamde, Tundac mas amgvari xerxebiT marjved marTavdnen. Cven xazgasmiT ukve vambobdiT rom nebismieri britanuli an misgan nawarmoebi politikuri ekonomiis dogmis yoveli SesaZlo maTematikuri aRwera, karl marqsis "kapitalis" CaTvliT, aucileblad Rebulobs entropiul xasiaTs. amas ufro gaSiSvlebulad gviCvenebs fon-neimaniseul sistemebi (nulovani jamiT), erTad ganxiluli wrfiv utolobebisa. yvela maTgani, gamonaklisis gareSe, sinamdvileSi warmoadgens nulovani zrdis models da amitomac yvela entropiuli modelia.

Cven ukve aRvniSnavdiT, rom wamyvani fiziokratebi aRiarebdnen wminda fizikuri mogebis arsebobis SesaZleblobas sazogadobisaTvis mTlianobaSi, magram isini uaryofdnen saTanado fizikuri pirvelsawyisis formirebis SesaZleblobas adamianis nebelobiTi zemoqmedebis Sedegad.

Cven aseve aRvniSnavdiT, rom aucilebelia realuri ekonomikuri zrda SevadaroT iseT evoluciur modelebs, rogoricaa Cveni biosferos ganviTareba an samyaros warmoSoba elementTa da izotopTa erTobliobidan, romelic ganwesrigebulia mendeleevis99 perioduli sistemis Sesabamisad. xazs vusvamdiT, rom es "modeli", ra Tqma unda, araa arc entropiuli da arc "antientropiuli" (im azriT, rac masSi esmodaT TavianT SromebSi, ludvig bolcmans, norbert viners da sxvebs, roca "negentropias" gansazRvravdnen rogorc "uaryofiT entropias"). bolcmanis TiToeul ase Tu ise Tanmimdevrul mimdevars unda aReniSna, met-naklebi siamovnebiT, rom bolcmani uSvebda Sebrunebuli entropiis SemTxvevas mxolod im sazRvrebSi, romelsac Semdeg fon neimani uwodebs "TamaSs nulovani jamiT" ekonomikisaTvis.

britaneTisa da misgan gamoyvanili yvela politikuri modeli, romlebic moTavsebulia panTeonSi "ekonomikauri mecniereba 101" (Economics 101[146]), saSineli uazrobaa im gagebiT, rom nebismieri ekonomika, efeqturad regulirebadi maTi meSveobiT, aucileblad unda mivides sayovelTao kolafsamde. mniSvnelovania xazgasmiT iTqvas, rom nebismieri nacionaluri da TviT msoflio ekonomikac ki, Tu misi marTva efuZneba "demokratiisa da Tavisufali vaWrobis" Tanamedrove "neokonservatiul" ideebs, anu e.w. saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis "ganpirobebulobebs", aucileblad ganwirulia sameurneo da politikuri ngrevis morevSi gadasaSvebad, e.i. qaosSi gadasavardnad.

saqmis am bneli mxaris sapirwoned unda aRiniSnos rom kacobrioba dro da dro avlenda TvalSisacem warmatebebs politikur ekonomikaSi. Cven avmaRldiT im cxovelTa donidan, romelnic TavianTi kulturuli potencialiT babuinebis doneze iyvnen. saubaria im droze, roca kacobrioba mTel dedamiwaze ar aRemateboda 10 mln adamians, sicocxlis mokle xangrZlivobiT. amJamad ki Cven gavediT iseT globaluri potencialis doneze, rom Tanamedrove teqnologiur SesaZleblobebiT dedamiwaze SeiZleba icxovros aranakleb 25 miliardma adamianma. Cven gadavdgiT pirveli nabiji kosmosis ara marto gamokvlevaSi, aramed mis aTvisebaSic. arsebiTad gavzardeT sawarmoo Zalebi, agreTve cxovrebis donisa da sicocxlis savaraudo xangrZlivobis gazrdis saSualebebi, msoflio meurneobis im regionebSi, romelTaTvisac xelmisawvdomia investiciaTa sikeTeebi, samecniero da teqnologiuri progresisaTvis. grZelvadian kvazievoluciur formaTa aRmasvlis aseTi dadastureba, politikuri ekonomiis socialuri ganviTarebis gzaze, dRes gvevlineba imad, rac adre, magaliTad 1945-1963 wlebSi, Cven gvesmoda rogorc maCvenebeli, romelic dRes igulisxmeba termin "ekonomikuri zrdis" civilur gamoyenebis dros.

miuxedvad imisa rom am progresis principialuri mizezi SeuZlebelia aRiweros dRes arsebuli da sayovelTaod miRebuli saswavlo maTematikis (classroom mathematics) nebismieri firmiT, mainc arsebobs am procesis arsebiT TaviseburebaTa monaxazebi. isini, maTi anomaluri fiziko-maTematikuri mniSvnelobis miuxedavad, SeiZleba ganvsazRvroT met-naklebad gasageb terminebSi, romlebic saSualebas iZleva warmovidginoT isini maTematikurad gasageb fizikur SezRudvaTa saxiT. es arsebiTi eskizuri SezRudvebi gviCvenebs, rom amgvarad asaxuli procesi absoluturad araentropiulia. es SezRudvebi amyarebs iseT dalageba-ganwesrigebas, romelic ar Seesabameba e.w. klauzius-kelvinis Termodinamikis[147] sam kanonis fuZeldeblur aqsiomatur SezRudvebs. amis miuxedavad es warmosaxviTad anomaluri maxasiaTebeli aris swored is, rac gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnas. aseTi warmodgena sruliad sakmarisia vaCvenoT, rom am anomaliis aRsawerad gamosadegi cneba aris ara "uaryofiTi entropia", aramed ufro mokrZalebuli termini "araentropuli".

es anomalia araa entropiis Sebruneba, aramed warmoadgens saTanado procesTa sul sxvagvar dalageba-ganwesrigebas.

procesTa mimdinareobis es forma Seesabameba sicocxlis procesTa aseTive anomalur formebs. amgvarad, Cven SeiZleba vamtkicoT¾xerxebiT, romelic gavs aTeneli klasikuri berZnebis mier akropolis qvebze sicocxlis Sesaxeb TavianT fiqrTa geometriuli gamosaxvas, agreTve im saSualebebs, romelTa demonstracia gvxvdeba, bolo xuTnaxevari saukunis ganmavlobaSi, nikolas kuzanelis127, luka paColis, leonardo da vinCis, kepleris da sxvaTa SemoqmedebaSi¾rom realuri sacicocxlo procesebi ar xasiaTdeba "uaryofiTi entropiis" statistikuri cnebiT. maT aRsawerad ukeT gamodgeba iseTi martivi termini, rogoricaa "araentropiuli". ganvixoloT Semdegi interpolirebuli mimoxilva imisa, Tu rogor aigeba statistikuri SepirispirebaTaTvis saWiro aseT SezRudvaTa gamartivebuli, magram TvalsaCino, nakrebi.

rogorc zemoT mivuTiTebdiT, SezRudva-pirobaTa is nakrebi, romelic axsnis am anomalias, unda iqnas gamoyvanili kacobriobis samyarosadmi praqtikuli damokidebulebidan, mTlianobaSi. sruliad cxadia Semdegi. adamianis damokidebuleba samyarosadmi gamoisaxeba dedamiwis mdebareobis wertilidan, mzis sistemaSi. amitom, yvela es damokidebuleba gamoisaxeba dedamiwis zedapirze adamianis mkvidrobis maCveneblebSi, e.i. kvadratul kilometrze gadaangariSebiT. warmoebisa da moxmarebis funqciebi, agreTve maTTan dakavSirebuli adamianTa modgmis gadarCenis procesebi (aRwarmoeba), gamoisaxeba RirebulebiT maxasiaTeblebSi, erT sulze gadaangariSebiT. vinaidan individis arsebobis wmindad demografiuli aspeqtebi Sinameurneobis funqcias warmoadgens, Cven unda mivaqcioT yuradreba maTac. amdenad, Cven unda movaxdinoT saerTo moculobis aRricxva, mosaxleobis erTi sulis, erTi Sinameurneobisa da erTi kvadratuli kilometris mixedviT.

aseTi angariSisas, adamianis aqtivoba umTavresad SeiZleba gamoisaxos rogorc korelativi, fizikuri produqciasa da moxmarebas Soris. momsaxurebis ramodenime forma, romelnic mWidrod dakavSurebulia aseT fizikur produqciasTan, Semdegia: ganaTleba, janmrTelobis profesionaluri dacva, mecniereba, natifi xelovnebis klasikuri dargebi¾poezia, drama, musika, ferwera, skulptura da arqiteqtura. amasTanave, momsaxurebis am sferoTa mimarT moTxovnebi mTlianad ganisazRvreba kulturuli doniT, romelic Tavis mxriv ganapirobebs fizikuri produqtiulobis ganuwyvetel zrdas¾ mosaxleobis erT sulze da erT kvadratul kilometrze.

amrigad, samyarosa da kacobriobis rogorc mTelis reproduqciul damokidebulebaTa indikaciuri parametri aris procesis kantoris tipi97. es ukanaskneli gansaxierebulia kacobriobis SexedulebaSi, mis mierve damzadebuli produqciis moxmarebis mimarT. amgvari kavSiri "danaxarj-gamoSvebas" Soris warmoadgens sayrden wertils, saidanac SiZleba davlandoT statistikurad gamosaxvadi "funqcia". amgvari moqmedebebi, sityvis farTe mniSvnelobiT, gavs wris kvadraturas. am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi, rogorc cxadyo nikolas kuzanelma, wris kvadraturis mcdeloba iZleva p ricxvisadmi wrfiv miaxloebebs, maSin roca amowurvis meTodis gamoyeneba mravalkuTxedis da wris perimetrTa Soris sruli saxeobiTi gansxvavebulobis Cvenebis dros, gonebas ubiZgebs aqsiomad aRiaros, ara-algebruli wriuli moqmedeba rogorc ufro maRali ontologiur aqtualoba, wertilisa da wrfis Sesaxeb evkliduri geometriis gulubryvilo aqsiomatikasTan mimarTebaSi.

am funqciis ganmsasazRvrav analizurad sakvanZo sidides warmoadgens ironiuli Seferilobis Tanafardoba, romelic arsebobs Sinameurneobis Tu mwarmoeblis per-kapita sabazro kalaTis fizikur moculobasa da im dros Soris, romelic sWirdeba perkapita samuSao Zalas am kalaTis sawarmoeblad. Tavis mxriv es sabazro kalaTi korelaciaSia mosaxleobis realuri Sromis nayofierebis fardobiT kulturul donesTan, mosaxleobis erT sulze, Sinameurneobaze da kvadratul kilometrze daangariSebuTan. fizikuri SezRudvebi, romelnic uSualod aris dakavSirebuli am iriniuli elferis TanafardobebTan, warmoadgens qvakuTxeds aucilebel stistikur warmodgenaTa dasafuZneblad.

pirvel nabijs am mimarTulebiT warmoadgens produqtiulobis Sromis nayofierebis, gansazRvreba.

Sromis nayofierebis statistikuri warmodgenis {reprezentaciis} zogadi funqciis pirvel elementia moiTxovna: realuri per-kapita sabazro kalaTis SemavsebelTa ganuwyveteli gaumjobeseba, xarisxobrivad da raodenobrivad. magram, per-kapita samuSao wlebis proporcia, romelnic aucilebelia am gaumjobesebuli per-kapita sabazro kalaTis warmoebisaTvis, unda iyos ufro mcire, vidre iyo manamde.

imave zogadi funqciis meore elementia moTxovna, rom izrdebodes Sefardeba warmoebis saSualebaTa warmoebisa (mosaxleobis erT sulze), Sinameurneobis saqonelTa warmoebasTan (mosaxleobis erT sulze), SinameurneobaTa per-kapita samomxmareblo kalaTis gauaresebis gareSe. es asaxavs "kapital-intensivobis" zrdis aucileblobas.

igive mTavari sayrdeni zogadi funqciis mesame elementia moTxovna, rom izrdebodes "Tavisufali energiis" "sistemis energiasTan" Sefardeba (nax.9). am SemTxvevaSi "Tavisufali energia" niSnavs sabazro kalaTis warmoebis fizikuri moculobis mTlianobaSi nazrds, mTlianad moxmarebuli sabazro kalaTis fizikur moculobasTan SedarebiT. zrdis es moculoba damatebiT ivseba ori SenakadiT: fizikuri ekonomikis masStabTa zrdiT da warmoebis kapital-intensvobis gadidebiT. zrdis es maCveneblebi unda gamoisaxebodes ara marto warmoebis rogorc aseTis mimarT, aramed fizikur faseulobaTa mimarTac¾erT kvadratul kilometrze, erT sulze da erT Sinameurneobaze.

maTematikis TvalsazrisiT, funqciis aseTi tipi cxadia anomaluria. amis miuxedavad, saTanado statistikur meTodTa TvalsazrisiT, is aRwers movlenaTa im TvisebaTa warmoSobas, romlebic harmoniaSia warmatebul ekonomikur zrdasTan. is agreTve aRwers namdvil procesTa statistikur suraTs, romelic Seesabameba ekonomikis fizikuri moculobis warmatebul zrdas. miuxedavd imisa, rom sruli statistikuri aRwerisaTvis unda ganvixiloT sxva SezRudvebi, anomaliis arsi mTlianobaSi unda veZioT funqciis ZiriTad aqsiomatur elementTa simravleSi. es axdens im SezRudvaTa statistikuri formis tipizacias, romelnic STaberilia "araentropiuli" procesiT.

urTierTdakavSirebul SezRudvebaTa es mTavari safuZvelmdebi simravle sruliad Seesabameba laibnicis33 mier SemoTavazebul fizikur ekonomikas, romelic efuZneboda siTbur manqanaTa gamoyenebis principebs. pirveli, laibnicma miznad daisaxa Seeqmna iseTi sikeTe kacobriobisaTvis, rom siTburi manqanis gamomyenebel erT adamians SeZleboda Seecvala asi sxva, vinc aseT manqanas ar iyenebs. farTe azriT es niSnavs, rom Sromis nayofierebis zrdis "araentropiuli"Fforma SesaZlebelia mxolod energo-momaragebis zrdis pirobebSi, rogorc raodenobriv maCveneblebSi¾mosaxleobis erT sulze, aseve "energiis nakadis koncentraciis" maCvenebelTa matebis pirobebSi. meores mxriv, amisaTvis aucilebelia, teqnologiis donis koordinirebuli zrda. aseve unda izrdebodes, maRali xarisxis wylis raodenoba, rogorc piradi, asev sxva saxis moxmarebisaTvis ¾ mosaxleobis erT sulze, kvadratul kilometrze, dReRamis ganmavlobaSi. unda izrdebodes tvirTgadazidvebitona-kolometrebi-saaTSi, kvadratul kilometrze da mosaxleobis erT sulze gadaangariSebiT; amave dros, gadazidvis fardobiTi Rirebuleba tona-kilometrebSi unda klebulobdes. unda izrdebodes Tavisufali drois fardobiTi xangrZlivoba, agreTve misi intensiuri gamoyenebisa SesaZleblobac, mecnierebasa da natifi xelovnebis klasikuri formebSi mecadineobisaTvis, rac gazrdis individis gonebis SemoqmedebiTi dones da ganviTrebis tempebs.

sistemuri analizis CarCoebSi, magaliTad, SeuZlebelia dakmayofilebul iqnas moTxovna-SezRudvaTa aseTi nakrebi. raSi mdgomareobs paradoqsi?

es igive paradoqsia, razec miuTiTebda isaak niutoni Tavis "sawyisebSi", roca mkiTxvelebs afrTxilebda cTunebisagan¾gamosaxos samyaro im ferebSi, romelsac dRes Cven vuwodebT "entropias". es niSnavs, rom samyaro ver iarsebebda, Tu dro da dro RmerTi ar momarTavs mas. esaa niutonis paradoqsi "saaTis momarTvis" Sesaxeb, romelic cnobilia laibnicis referenciebidan, Tavisive mimoweraze klarkTan da niutonTan. im faqtma, rom SesaZlebelia statistikur SezRudvaTa erTobliobaSi aRmoCndes im tipis Sedegi, romelic araa sistemuri analizis SemTxvevaSi, ar unda gagvakvirvos, Tu ar davuSvebT pozitivisti maTematikosebisaTvis Zalze damaxasiaTebeli saerTo sulelur Secdomas, roca algebruli funqciis dro-sivrcul xarvezebs miaweren kauzalobis Tvisebas.

Tvladi dalagebis maTematikuri funqcia{daniSnuleba} imaSia rom asaxos dro-sivrculi Tanafardobebi da ara imaSi, rom Tavad miaweros TviT dro-sivrces fizikur procesTa marTvis kauzaluri principebi, romlebic am dro-sivrceSi mimdinareobs. Tu Cven ar davuSvebT am Zalze uxeS ontologiur Secdomas, maSin Tavisuflad SeiZleba aRvweroT statistikurad, rogorc entropiuli, aseve araentropiuli Tanafardobebi. Tuki Cven davuSvebT am ontologiur Secdomas, aRmovCndebiT "saaTis zambaris momarTvis" paradoqsis winaSe, romlis Sesaxeb ase metyvelad saubrobdnen niutoni da laibnici, TiTqmis samasi wlis wineT. samwuxarod, maTematikosTa momzadebaSi upiratesoba eZleva ufro algebrul azrovnebas, vidre geometriuli azrovnebis srulyofas, gaspar monJis[148] da iakob Staineris[149] mixedviT. swored es iqceva im Zalze martiv saSualebad, romelic studentebs akargvinebs maTematikuri keTilgonierebis safuZvels. es ukanasknelia konstruqciuli geometria. studentebma, romelnic ase gulubryvilod arian mindobili algebrul meTodebze, SeiZleba dakargon amisi gageba, rom algebruli azrovneba, Tavis ukeTes formaSi, warmoadgens suraTs, daxatuls dro-sivrceSi, romelic araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar unda iqnes gagebuli fizikuri dro-sivrcis umaRles da WeSmaritad ared.

mgonia rom arcerT sxva disciplinas ar SeuZlia gamoavlinos da ipovos am problemis amoxsna ufro damajereblad, vidre amas akeTebs fizikuri ekonomika rogorc mecniereba.

urTierTdakavSirebul SezRudvaTa simravle, romelic axlaxan aRvwereT, xsnis araentropiul procesTa formas, sagangebod arCeul fazur sivrceSi, romelic TiTqosda warmoadgens im namdvil procesis aCrdils, romlis aRwerac xdeba. aRweris im sazRvrebSi romelic avirCieT, esaa am SezRudvebiT aRwerili gardaqmnis forma. raSi mdgomareobs gardaqmnis Sinaarsi? rogoria mizezebrivi {kauzaluri} Taviseburebani im gardaqmnisa, romelic mdebareobs maTematikuri formalizmis, rogorc aseTis, miRma?

momqmedi mizezia adamianis goneba. masSi mimdinareobs, metad Tu naklebad ganviTarebuli, SemoqmedebiTi Zalis is procesebi, romelic ideaTa warmoSobis wyaroa, agreTve maTi gadacemisa da asimiliaciisa. amis Sedegad xorcieldeba adre Camoyalibebul azrTa realuri, revoluciur-aqsiomaturi gardaqmnebi.

Tavisi bunebis mixedviT, aseTi aRmoCenebi ar SeiZleba warmodgenil iqnas maTematikiT an mkafiod Camoyalibdes romelime sxva enis gamoyenebiT. revoluciur-aqsiomaturi aRmoCena warmoadgens absolutur wyvetas, warmodgenis nebismieri arsebuli formaluri sistemis mimarT da SeuZlebelia misi gamosaxva misi simboloebis meSveobiT. magram adamians, romelic aris pirvelaRmomCeni, ZaluZs daexmaros sxvas gaimeoros igive aRmoCena, paradoqsis efeqturad gadacemis meSveobiT. formaluri codna, romelic aqvs am adamians, ar aZlevda mas saSualebas, gaego es fardobiTad anomaluri, da amitom "paradoqsaluri", movlena.

urTierTobis es forma, cxadia ekuTvnis metaforis sferos. revoluciur-aqsiomaturi aRmoCena SeuZlebelia gadmoices, manamde arsebuli nebismieri formaluri eniT. is SeiZleba gadmoices mxolod paradoqsis meTodTa meSveobiT, romlebic warmoSobs urTierTobis metaforul, irib formas, e.i. msmenelTa gonebaSi im SemoqmedebiTi procesTa aqtivizacias, romelTac SeuZlia aRadginos aqsiomaturi aRmoCenis aqti, romelic metaforulad aRwerilia pirvelaRmomCenis mier.

ekonomikis araentropiuli zrdis xasiaTi, rac Cven aq davadgineT, warmoadgens sazogadoebrivi warmoebis da masTan dakavSirebuli adamianis Semoqmedebis saxeobaTa reorganizaciis Sedegs, romelnic mimdinareobs mecnieruli an misi msgavsi sxva revoluciur-aqsiomatur aRmoCenaTa zegavleniT. Tumca mniSvnelovania Cvens mier TviT imis gaazreba, rom mecnierebisa da natif xelovnebaTa ganviTareba mimdinareobs ganuwyvetliv, adamianuri modgmis arsebobis cnobili adreuli periodebidan dawyebuli; magram, rac gind iyos, bolo eqvs saukuneSi, 1967-1974 wlebis periodamde, moxda Sromis nayofierebis iseTi zrda¾mosaxleobis erT sulze da kvadratul kilometrze¾romlis msgavsi kacobriobas ar axsovs, Tavisi arsebobis bolo ori milioni wlis ganmavlobaSi. es dakavSirebulia bunebismetyvelebaSi da natif xelovnebaSi revoluciur aRmoCenaTa intensivobis saTanado tempebTan, romelTa Sedareba SeuZlebelia, wrsulSi cnobil periodebTan. imis miuxedavad, rom bzari ganaTlebaSi da natifi xelovnebis klasikuri formebis praqtikaSi, sul ufro Rrmavdeboda bolo saukunis ganmavlobaSi¾gansakuTrebiT ukanaskneli 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi¾Cven mainc mivaRwieT iseT dones, roca ekonomikaSi saTanado tempebis mxardasWerad sakmarisia gamovyoT 5%-mde, ufro meti ki SegviZlia davuTmoT mecnierebasa da axali teqnologiebis Seqmnasa da ganviTarebas.

aqsiomaturad, mecnierebis zemoqmedebis Sedegad sazogadoebis industriuli ganviTareba bolo saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi warmoadgens mxolod im procesis gagrZelebas, dReisTvis Tvisobrivad ufro Zlieris, romelic yovelTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli kacobriobisaTvis. amis miuxedavad bolo eqvsasi wlis ganmavlobaSi moxda cvlilebebi samuSao Zalis aucilebeli dasaqmebis erTobliv struqturaSi. kerZod, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis soflis mosaxleobis ricxovnoba 1790 wlis aRweris mixedviT Seadgenda 90%-s. dRes is Semcirda 2%-mde da es is ricxvia, romelic aucilebelia sazogadoebisaTvis. amave dros moxda arsebiTi zrda, sul ufro kapital-investirebadi da energo-tevadi saqalaqo warmoebisa, romelic saWiroebs arsebiT mecnierul uzrunvelyofas. aman migviyvana adamianis mier kosmosis kolonizaciis zRurblamde. laparakia kosmosis im adgilTa aTvisebaze, romlebic mecnierebam xelaxla daadgina rogorc dedamiwis-axlo kosmosuri sivrce. muSakTa raodenoba, romelic dResaTvis aucilebelia mxolod fundamenturi mecnieruli gamokvlevebsa da teqnologiuri procesis uzrunvelsayofel samuSaobSi monawileobisaTvis, platonis akademiaSi adamianTa mcire jgufidan gadaizarda iseT ricxvSi, romelic utoldeba dedamiwis mTeli mosaxleobis raodenobas 600 wlis wineT. amave dros Cven jerac ar migviRwevia dasaqmebis aucilebel donemde am sferoSi. magram, Tavad moTxovna, romelic Seadgens mosaxleobis 10%-s, adasturebs im Tvisebriv cvlilebas, rac moxda bolo 600 wlis ganmavlobaSi.

Tu es planeta, sadRac 21-e saukunis dasawyisSi, didi xniT ar CaiZireba axal "SuasaukuneTa bneleTSi", maSin ekonomikis fizikuri aRorZinebis amocana gvaiZulebs vimoZraoT sul ufro aCqarebul tempebiT. mimarTuleba, saiTkenac es unda ganxorcieldes, faqtiurad aris mecnierulad dasabuTebuli sayovelTao ekonomika. aseT pirobebSi aSkara perspeqtivad isaxeba Semdegi. msoflio samuSao Zalis naxevarze meti mravali TaobaSi, SeiZleba aRmoCndes dakavebuli sul ufro metad nayofier teqnologiaTa sferoSi, romelTac saWiroebs danarCeni samuSao Zala.

aseTi gardaqmnebi daiwyo jer kidev me-15 saukuneSi, ZiriTadad italiaSi. isini dakavSirebuli iyo iseT saxeebTan, rogorebic arian: filipo bruneleski[150], nikolas kuzaneli127, paolo del poco toskaneli[151] (man Seqmna ruka, romelsac iyenebda qristefore kolumbi), luka paColi da leonardo da vinCi117. es gardaqmnebi gamovlinda samrewvelo revoluciaSi, romelic efuZneboda siTbur manqanebs, e.i. revoluciaSi, romelsac jer kidev XVII saukuneSi winaswarmetyvelebdnen da warmoidgendnen qristian hiugensi95 da laibnici¾hiugensma Seqmna, feTqebad sawvavze momuSave dguSiani Zrava, xolo laibnicma Seqmna da gamoiyena qvanaxSirze momuSave orTqlis manqana.

SeoqmedebiTi gonebis swored aseTi revoluciur miswrafebaSia ganTavsebuli ekonomikis warmatebulad ganviTarebis araentropiuli formis momqmedi mizezebi, da ara cariel algebrul dro-sivrceSi. am araentropiul ekonomikur procesTa zRvar-samanni adgens im winaswar pirobebs, romlebic unda gaiTvaliswinos sazogadoebam, Tu mas gezi aRebuli aqvs ganviTarebis aseTi mizanTa miRwevisaken. faqtiurad es zRvar-samanni ganapirobebs araentropiuli Sedegis formas, is gvkarnaxobs Cven, vinc Zalixmeva unda gavwioT maTi ganxorcielebisaTvis, rom Tamamad unda wavideT garkveul danaxarjebze iseT mniSvnelovan sferoebSi rogoricaa mecnieruli uzrunvelyofa, kapital-intensivoba, ganaTleba, janmrTelobis dacva, energo-intensivoba, Tu ar gvinda uari unda vTqvaT am araentropiul mizanTa realizaciaze. ekonomikis araentropiuli zrdis formebs vqmniT Cven, Cveni SemoqmediTi gonebis Zalis meSveobiT, da ara maTematikosTa carieli dro-sivrce.

 

 

 

 

 

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3.1. zrdis politika

Tu Tqven gadawyviteT gaecnoT, aSS finansTa ministr aleqsandr hamiltonis52 mier gakeTebul winaswarmetyvelur moxsenebas "manufaqturis Sesaxeb", 1791 wlis kongresis sxdomaze, maSin kargad unda gesmodeT "oqros renesansis" politikuri Sedegebi.

laibnici rCevas iZleoda¾iseTi siTburi manqana, rogoric iyo misi TanamSromlis denis papenis mier Seqmnili da warmatebiT momuSave orTqlis Zrava, upirveles yovlisa unda gamoiyenebodes samTo saqmis srulyofisaTvis. imxanad siTburi manqanis farTe gamoyenebis winaswari pirobad iTvleboda qvanaxSiris mopoveba sul ufro meti moculobiT da naklebi TviTRirebulebiT, siTburi teqnikis mimarT sxva ZiriTadi moTxovnebis dacviT. hamiltonma, romelic erTguli iyo laibnicis33 koncepciebisa, aCvena Tu rogor unda gamoeyenebinaT qalaqis mrewvelobis gansaviTareblad energetikuli teqnikis "xelovnuri Sroma", rogor migviyvanda es, miuxedavad soflis meurneobaSi dasaqmebuli mosaxleobis didi raodenobisa, fermaTa ufro maRal mosavlianamde¾saxnavi farTobis TiToeul heqtarze, adrindelTan SedarebiT.

aseTi gardaqmnebi SesaZlebelia, mxolod, bavSvTa da mozardTa, SedarebiT ufro maRali xarisxis da sayovelTao ganaTlebis pirobebSi. es unda iyos swavleba, romelic axalgazrda adamians saSualebas miscems daeuflos zogad mecnierul principebs. es swavleba unda hgavdes seriozul momzadebas geometriaSi, romelic warmoadgens adamianis saTanado unarTa ganviTarebis safuZvels. ganaTlebisadmi aseTi midgoma aucilebelia imisaTvis rom personalis warmoebiTi datvirTva mimarTuli iqnes im teqnologiaTa dauflebaze, romlebic daefuZneba uaxles mecnierul aRmoCenebs.

Tu axalgazrdobas aRvzrdiT am moTxovnaTa Sesabamisad, maSin CamovayalibebT iseT sazogadoebas, sadac yoveli mamakaci da qali flobs SemoqmedebiTi gonebis iseT potencials, romelic mas warmoaCens rogorc Semoqmedis cocxal xats. aseT mosaxleobas eqneba midrekileba cnos da ariaros, Tu raoden sasargebloa da praqtikulad Rirebuli yvelasaTvis, misi wridan gamosul calkeul adamianTa SedarebiT gamorCeul RirsebaTa kidev ufro ganviTareba. magram aseTi mosaxleoba ver Seegueba azrs, rom memkvidreobiT miRebuli saxeli an simdidre gansazRvravdes sazogadoebriv klass Tu kastas, romlis wevrebi TiTqos flobdnen ufro maRal Rirsebebs, danarCen mosaxleobasTan SedarebiT. is msoflio, romelic TiTqmis mTlianad iqneba Semdgari amgvari respublikuri zneobis mqone plebeebisagan, sulac ar warmoadgens bednier perspeqtivas muqTaxorebisaTvis, romelTa simdidre da Zalaufleba emyareba finansur spekulaciebs da mevaxSeobis msgavs saxeebs.

empirikosi jon loki45 xazgasmiT aRniSnavda ¾oligarqebi, sakuTari sixocxlis, Tavisuflebisa da sakuTrebisaTvis ver elevian soflis uazro monur yofisa da qalaqis CamorCenili mosaxleobis "mSvenierobebs", romelnic dakavebulni arian mZime da dabal-anazraurebadi SromiT. oligarqiaTa utopiuri mizania iseTi msoflios Seqmna, romelSic axalgazrdoba Seiswavlis maTTvis sasurveli qcevis wesebs. isini axalgazrdobas ar avaldebuleben TavianT Tavze aiRon pasuxismgebloba codnis dauflebaze, vinaidan swavlis procesi Camoayalibebda iseT individebs, romelTac ecodinebodaT geometria da natifi xelovneba, eqnebodaT Sinagani inteligentoba, rogorc SromisaTvis, aseve ojaxuri cxovrebisaTvis, romlebzec gadamwyvet zemoqmedebas axdens sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebi.

winaistoriul epoqebidan SemorCenili wyaroebi, magaliTad Tavis qalebi, gansakuTrebiT dokumentirebuli istoria, mogviTxroben imaze rom mTel am periodTa ganmavlobaSi adamianis sazogadoebriv da individualur cxovrebaSi mTavari iyo Semdegi, arsebiTad globaluri, problema. esaa pasuxis Zebna kiTxvaze: rogor msoflioSi vicxovrebT? iqneba es msoflio oligarqia, romelSic samecniero da teqnologiuri progresi daTrgunvilia, raTa xalxis umravlesoba iqces gasulelebul naxirad, romlis manipulireba SesaZlebelia, Tu es iqneba msoflio, romelic Seesabameba RvTis xatad da msgavsad Seqmnili individualuri pirovnebis moTxovnilebebs?

"Tavisufali vaWrobis" britanuli dogmebi SeimuSava britaneTis TviTmarqvia "veneciurma", e.i. oligarqiulma partiam. es dogmebi, romlebic Camoayalibda "veneciuri partiis" lideris¾Selburnis106, zewoliT, ekuTvnis jer kidev 1763 wels, e.i. Jams, roca britaneTma dasZlia safrangeTis sazRvao Zliereba. am gamarjvebam britanelebs saSualeba misca mieRwiaT sazRvao ZlierebisaTvis da sruli upiratesobisaTvis msoflio masSatabiT, zustad iseve, rogorc Tavis droze venecia gaxda imperiuli Zala mTel xmelTaSua zRvaSi. 1763 wlis momdevno periodSi Selnburnma da misma laqia benTamma eduard giboni[152] waaqezes daewera Tavisi "cnobili" wigni, "romis imperiis dacema da ngreva". britaneTis liberalur partias (oficialurad ase uwodeben "veneciur partias") sinamdvileSi Cafiqrebuli qonda warmoeqmna britaneTis msoflio imperia, romelSic londons eqneboda sayovelTao dedaqalaqis roli¾"mesame romis" roli. saqonlis donemde dayvanili britaneTis qveSemrdomTa mdgomareoba mowmobs rom globaluri britanuli utopia mdgomareobda iseTi msoflios SeqmnaSi, romelSic planeta dedamiwaze macxovrebel adamianTa umravlesoba iqmneboda xepre, SiSveli da fexmZime, xolo avadmyofobaTa da SimSilis meSveobiT teritoriebi darCeboda meCxerad dasaxlebuli.

praqtikulad britaneTi gaxda msoflio imperia, miuxedavad imis rom misi kunZulebi gadaiqca postindustriul nagavsayrel adgilad. am qveynis mosaxleobis didi nawili daeSva "iahus" donemde[153], xolo misi samxedro Zliereba Znelad Tu SeiZleba darCes Tundac gardasuli didebis simbolod. is batonobs msoflioSi, mxolod empirikosTa45 aqsiomaturi wanamZRvrebis hegemoniis xarjze, romelsac metoqe TiTqmis ar gaaCnia. mis mixedviT xdeba politikis Camoyalibeba, planetis yvela saxelmwifos dedaqalaqSi. magram es araa raime upiratesoba britaneTis saxelmwifosi anda misi xalxis.

britaneTis dRevandeli msoflio imperiis Tavze ar frialebs didi-britaneTis saxelmwifo droSa (The Union Jack). tiraniis Zveli wiTeli surTukebic aRarsad Cans. dRevandeli imperia arsebobs multi-kulturuli adamianuri samxecis saxiT, romelic ioli samarTavia da sadac yoveli eri Tu eTnikuri jgufi tyuvdeba imiT, rom TiToeuls sxva eCveneba mis mtrad. mimdinareobs konfliqtebi, hobsis[154] formiT, romelTac kanti uwodebda "heteronomiuls"[155]. Tumca TiToeuli am tomis rwmeniTi aRmsarebloba urTierT-eqskluziuria, magram multikulturul sakulto dogmaTa es warmomadgenlebi, yvela uklebliv, mTlianad Seesabameba zemoT naCveneb empirikosTa aqsiomebs. ase rom, yoveli eri warmoadgens rgols im TamaSSi, romelic maTSi STanerges ideologiuri TamaSis britanelma didostatebma. zustad aseve, am saerTo-kacobriul zooparkSi, TiToeuli TamaSobs adre Semzadebul funqcias, britanuli imperializmi ki muSaobs rogorc nadirTa daraji.

britanuli empirizmis zustad aseTive funqcia vrceldeba politekonomiis sferoze, aRwevs natif xelovnebaSi da bunebismetyvelebis sferoSi.

XVII saukunis Sua periodidan moyolebuli, TiTqmis 1827 wlamde, anti‑kartezianuli da anti‑niutonianistur jgufebi safarangeTSi praqtikulad iyvnen liderebi, mecnierebasa da teqnologiaSi. dawyebuli daaxloebiT 1827 wlidan, damTavrebuli pirveli msoflio omis bolomde, kompetenturobis etaloni, rogorc ganaTlebis, aseve bunebismetyvelebis sferoSi iyo germania. neo-niutonianizmi kvarcxlbekze Semoaskupes safrangeTSi, 1814-15 wlebis venis kongresis[156] gamarjvebulTa gankargulebiT. maSin safrangeTidan gaaZeves lazar karno[157] da misi maswavlebeli gaspar monJi148¾msoflio mecnierebaSi safrangeTis maSindeli upiratesobis Semomqmedi. karno gadaasaxles germaniaSi, xolo monJi, mis mierve Seqmnili ganaTlebis programasTan erTad gandevnes "politeqnikur skolidan", romelic aseve mis mierve iyo agebuli. swored venis 1815 wlis kongresis gamarjvevebulTa da velf-hanoveris samefo dinastia[158], 1815 wlis germanias Tavs axvevda britanuli empirizmis anti‑laibniciur ideologiur zegavlenas, hegelisa134 da savinisa121 romantikuli iracionalizmis kantianur formebs.

britaneTis yofnam gamarjvebulTa Soris pirveli da meore msoflio omis Semdgom periodebSi, saSualeba misca britanel empirikosebs¾zustad imgvaradve, rogorc adre kongresze[159]¾kanonis donemde aeyvanaT britaneli empirizmis hegemonia iurisprudenciis, politikuri ekonomiisa da bunebismetyvelebis ideologiaSi, Tanamedrove msoflios met nawilSi.

magram amisagan araviTari sargebloba ar qonia britaneTis mosaxleobas, romlis didi nawili dRes aRmoCnda dabeCavebul RaribTa mdgomareobaSi. es gakeTda parazituli oligarqiul-finansuri sistemisaTvis, romelic "gaerTianebul samefoSi" binadrobs ara rogorc moqalaqe, aramed rogorc mamakacebze moZalade alqaji. roca naxirs vamravlebT, vRebulobT xorcsa da rZes. zustad aseve, es britaneli imperiuli alqaji asulelebs Tavis adamianuri modgmis msxerpls, amravlebs ra mas da uwevs eqsploatacias rogorc pirutyv saqonels. amas rom miaRwio sakmarisi araa daangrio msxverplis goneba "Sedegze-orientirebuli ganaTlebis"[160] meSveobiT. aramed, damatebiT saWiroa ekonomikuri procesebidan ganidevnos nawarmis xarisxisa da muSakTa produqtiulobis gazrdis is faqtorebi, romlebic damokidebulia bavSvTa da mozardTa gonebis SemoqmediT ZalTa ganviTarebaze.

maSasadame, anglo-saqsuri oligarqiis es alqaji-imperialistebi mTel kacobriobas epyrobian rogorc naxirs, erekebian ra adamianebs juzepe maZinis76 stilSi, multikulturul samxeceSi, romelSic ideologia erTi-meoreze uaresia, galiidan galiaSi. mraval sxva ramesTan erTad, am samxeceSi kategoriulad akrZalulia bavSvebs da mozardebs davexmaroT iseTi ganaTlebis miRebaSi, romelic SesaZlebelia mxolod formalur damtkicebis Sizofreniaze sruli uaris Tqmis SemTxvevaSi da azrovnebis iseTi formaTa swavlebiT, romlebic saSualebas iZleva moswavleTa gonebaSi xelaxla gaTamaSdes istoriis msvlelobaSi momxdar udides novatorTa revoluciur-aqsiomaturi aRmoCenebi. msgavsi akrZalvis pirobebSi adamianis gonebis mdgomareoba SeiZleba SevadaroT saWurisis "nayofierebas". es yvelaferi erTad isaa, rasac empirizmi45 qvia.

 

 

 

 

 

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4.0 ekonomika rogorc unikaluri mecniereba[161]

aqamde gadmocemuli masala saSualebas gvaZlevs gamovTqvaT zogierTi mosazreba, romlebmac mravali mkiTxveli SeiZleba SokSi Caagdos. yovel SemTxvevaSi aseTi SeiZleba iyos misi pirveli reaqcia. Cven win wamovwevT argumentebs Semdegi Tezisis dasamtkiceblad: WeSmariti kacobrivi codna mTlianad emyareba mtkicebulebebs, romlebic empiriuli gziT moipoveba fizikuri ekonomikis sferodan. pirvel rigSi, ganvaTavsoT es debuleba Semecnebis Teoriis (epistemelogiis) konturebSi, romlebic igulisxmeboda Cvens adrindeli argumenetebSi.

aqamde Cven aRvniSnavdiT adamianuri codnis eqvs dones, romelTagan bolo xuTis gageba sruliad SesaZlebelia. kacobrivi codnis es doneebi ase SeiZleba warmovadginoT, sirTuleTa zrdis Sesabamisi rigiT:

1. yvelaze dabali, TiTqmis cxoveluri donea SegrZnebiTi aRqma¾gulubryvilo, Cveulebrivad iracionaluri reaqcia cdis mimarT;

2. formaluri codna, romelic Seesabameba Cvens warmodgenebs gamocdilebis Sesaxeb, "aqsiomatur-memkvidreobiTi principis" meSveobiT;

3. individualuri, validuri, WeSmaritad revoluciur-aqsiomaturi aRmoCena, romelic amoatrialebs xolme arsebuli formaluri codnis erTobliobas: esaa hipoTeza[162];

4. dalageba-ganwesrigebis principi anu kantoris tipi97, romelic gansazRvravs validur hipoTezaTa {aRmoCenaTa} mimdevrobas: esaa umaRlesi hipoTeza;

5. warmodgena, romelsac SeuZlia ama Tu im azriT daalagos da ganawesrigos erT mimdevrobad, gansxvavebuli Tvisebis umaRlesi hipoTezebi. am warmodgenas ewodeba hipoTeza umaRlesi hipoTezis Sesaxeb (umaRlesi hipoTezis gamoTqma, umaRlesi hipoTezis hipoTezireba);

6. rwmena rom arsebobs umaRlesi, ze-droiTi wesrigi, romelic Seicavs hipoTezas umaRlesi hipoTezis Sesaxebrogor Seicavs umaRlesi hipoTeza "martiv" hipoTezas. es ze‑droiTi wesrigi aris is, rasac platoni uwodebs sikeTes, xolo kantori absoluts.

daveyrdnoT argumentirebul warmodgenebs, romelnic ganvaviTareT am naSromSi aqamde da yuradReba mTlianad mivapyroT epistemelogiis instrumentariaTa ufro viwro nawils¾ hipoTezis CamoyalibaTa sam "dones", platonis mixedviT. axla, roca ukve davasaxeleT eqvsi done imisa rac SeiZleba ganxilul iqnas rogorc codnis diapazoni, SeiZleba SevzRudoT termin "codnis", Tu "adamianuri codnis", gamoyeneba, raTa SevZloT met-naklebad warmovadginoT is warmatebuli Sedegebi, romelTac iwvevs hipoTezirebis am sami donis inteligibelur unarTa gacnobiereba.

ubralo hipoTezishipoTezirebis sam doneTagan pirvelisa da umartivesis, Sesaxeb Cvens mier garkveviT iyo naTqvami, Tu rogor gvesmis misi mimarTeba fizikuri Sromis nayofierebis matebaSi, mosaxleobis erT sulze da kvadratuli kilometrze gadaangariSebiT.

meore SemTxvevisaTvis, e.i. umaRlesi hipoTezisaTvis, unda ganvixiloT mecnierul aRmoCenaTa erTi specialuri tipi,

am mizniT gamoviyenoT evdoqses amowurvis meTodi im saxiT, rogorc mas iyenebdnen platoni, arqimede, nikolas kuzaneli da sxvebi. hipoTezis Camoyalibebis am meTodis modelad gamoviyenoT magaliTi platonis dialogidan parmenide92, agreTve nikolas kuzanelis mier platonis parmenides paradoqsis gamoyenebani, wris kvadraturis Sesaxeb arqimedes paradoqsis axsnis dros. es niSnavs, rom yoveli winadadeba, romelic unda Semowmdes xom ar Seicavs is paradoqss, unda iqnas warmodgenili saTanado konstruqciul-geometriul formaSi. amowurvis meTodiT, am formidan es winadadeba unda iqnas gayvanili Tavis zRvarSi. geometriulad dadgenili, ontologiuri "saxeobiTi RreCos" arseboba, mocemul funqciasa da am zRvris asimptotur garss Soris, warmoaCens saTanado paradoqss.

am meTodiT gansazRvruli hipoTezebi warmoqmnis tips, romelic Seesabameba ufro maRal hipoTezaTa warmoqmnis specifikur gzas. mas umaRlesi hipoTeza ewodeba.

saerTod geometriaSi kidev aris erTi principi, romelsac iyenebdnen platoni da kepleri, karl gausi da sxvebi. is SeiZleba gamoviyenoT amowurvis meTodTan erTad, magram gamoirCeva generirebis principis sxva tipiT. is SeiZleba davaxasaiToT, rogrc "kvanturi velis principi". misi demonstrireba moaxdina keplerma, iyenebda ra singularobaTa geometriulad dalagebul ganawilebas, planetaTa SesaZlo orbitebisa da maT harmoniul TanafadobaTa gasaTvlelad. igive iTqmis dimitri mendeleevzec99, romelmac Cveni yuradReba miapyro "magiuri" saxis ricxvebs, mis mier aRmoCenil periodul kanonSi, qimiidan.

meore principi mWidro kavSirSia mesamesTan. es ukanaskneli Seexeba sxvadasxva dalageba-ganwesrigebebSi arsebul im gansxvavebas, romelic ganTavsebulia dadebiT da uaryofiT simrudeTa sxvadasxvaobaSi. mesame principze gansakuTrebuli yuradReba gaamaxvila keplerma, magram mas gulisxmobda jer kidev platoni, dodekaedrisa (Tormetwaxnaga) da "oqros kveTis" Tavis "qvantur-veliseul" gaazreba-interpretaciaSi.

generirebis am xelmisawvdomi principebidan TiToeuli SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas, cal-calke, Tvisebrivad axali ontologiuri paradoqsis Camosayalibeblad, romelic warmoSobs hipoTezas. amas garda, pirveli ori principi SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas kombinirebulad. generirebis validur principTa rac ufro didi raodenoba iqneba ase SemuSavebuli, miT meti iqneba miRebuli umaRlesi hipoTezis tipis formaluri Zala. es Sedareba[163] Tavad warmoadgens TvalsaCino magaliTs, umaRlesi hipoTezis Sesaxeb hipoTezis Camoyalibebis arCevanSi, rac dasaxuli iyo am naSromSi.

am nimuSebs mivyevarT imis aRiarebamde, rom ueWvelobisa da gagebadobis (intelligibility) erTaderT wyarod adamianuri codnis mTlianobaSi gvevlineba fizikuri ekonomikisadmi is midgoma, romelic Seesabameba hipoTezaTa warmoqmnis procesis swored amgvar warmodgenas. es swored is yuradsaRebi epistemelogiuri mosazrebaa, romelic implicutur safuZvlad udevs "fizikuri ekonomikis" kompetentur mecnierebas.

kacobriobam Tavisi damokidebuleba samyaros mimarT, unda gansazRvros dabadebis wignis I Tavis Sesabamisad, bibliidan. es wigni zustad miuTiTebs im Zalaze, romelic micemuli aqvs adamians, rogorc am droiTi samyaros baton-patrons, da amasTan dakavSirebul mis pasuxismgeblobaze.

dasabuTebulia rom dabadebis I Tavis darigebebi sulac araa adamianisaTvis gaugebari raRac brZanebebi, romelic man morCilad unda aRasrulos, brma rwmenis xelmZRvanelobiT.

es sruliad gasagebi instruqciebia da amitomac warmoadgens WeSmaritebas, romelic avaldebulebs Tavdajerebul warmarTsac ki. am WeSmaritebis ueWveloba zeSTagonebuli aqvs yovel gonier adamians, vinaidan mas SeuZlia dainaxos Tu rogor gamoarCevs kacobriobas individis gonebis SemoqmedebiTi Zala, droiTi samyaros yvela sxva mkvidrisagan da ayenebs mas maT zemoT. maSasadame, es WeSmariteba sruliad gasagebi principia, romelsac gotfrid laibnici uwodebda "bunebriv uflebas" (natural law). esaa sayovelTao moralis kanonis rangSi (lawful) ayvanis safuZveli, romelsac eTanxmebian warmarTebic ki.

zustad iseve, rogorc calkeuli pirovneba pasuxismgebelia mTlianad adamianis modgmisa da sakuTari saqcielisaTvis, aseve TiToeuli Cvengani mudmivad unda afasebdes sakuTar Tavs da saqmianobas, yofierebis yvela aspeqtSi. ase rom, goniereba gvkarnaxobs vimoqmedoT sayovelTao bunebrivi uflebis (natural law) am Sinagan da naTel moTxovnaTa Sesabamisad.

termin "pasuxismgeblobis" amgvarad gageba saSualebas iZleva is ganxilul iqnas rogorc sinonimi kargad Camoyalibebuli terminisa "codna" (knowledge). amaSi igulisxmeba kacobriobis droiT samyarosTan kavSiris codna. TiToeuli CvenTaganisaTvis is niSnavs Cvens individualur urTierToba-monawileobasac im procesSi, romeliTac sakuTari qveyna da mTlianad kacobrioba dakavSirebulia samyarosTan, rogorc mTelTan. es niSnavs rom WeSmariti Semecnebis dros Cven aucileblad unda vgrZnobdeT pasuxismgeblobas mTlianad kacobriobis saxeliT, vinaidan es TiToeul CvenganSi Canergilia SemoqmediTi gonis Zalis mier.

pirvel rigSi, es Seexeba hipoTezis Semecnebas, ufro zustadhipoTezaTa wamoyenebis procesis Semecnebas. anu, es Seexeba umaRlesi hipoTezis wamoyenebis procesis Semecnebas. Tavis mxriv, es saWiroebs vicodeT garkveuli sazomi, romliTac CvenTvis realurad da moralurad xelmisawvdomi xdeba dalageba-ganwesrigebis is Sinagani principi, romelic sa